Substance Abuse

kms013's version from 2016-01-27 19:52


Question Answer
Sub Addiction/Dependence is a ______________Disease
Addition is defined as....chronic relapsing brain disease that is characterized by complusive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences
Why is SA a brain disease?Because the druges change the brain; the structure, and how it works; these brain changes cna be long lasting and can lead to many harmful, often self-destructive behaviors
What is alcoholism?A primary, chronic progressive disease with geneteic, pshyosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifesttations
Alcoholism is ____ if untreatedfatal
Alcholism is characterized by:continuous or periodic: imparied control over drinking, preoccupation w the drug alcohol, use of alochol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial
Is recovery for alchol possible?yes
Recovery from alcoholism and drug addiction is.....a complex and dynaimic process encompassing all the positive benefits to physical, mnetla, and social health that can happen when people with an addiction to alcohol or durgs or their family members get the help they need
Why are an understanding of the disease concept of addiction and the possibility of recover the two most important things?compassion and understanding vs. shame and guilt; disease model implies possible treatment; as PT/OT knows, recovery strategies that require long term repetive behaviors with a high level of commitment are harder than a regimen of pill taking
alcoholism S/S:you may: be unable to limit the amt you drink, feel strong compulsion to drink, develop tolerance to alcohol so that you need more to feel its effects; drink alone/hide your drinking, experience physical withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, sweating, shaking when you don't drink, not remember conversations/commitments "blackouts"; Make a ritual of having drinks at certain times/become annyoyed when this ritual is disturbed/questioned, be irritable when your usual drinking time nears, especialy if alcohol is not available, keep alchol in unlikely places at home, work, or car, gulp drinks, order doubles, or become drunk intentionally to feel good/normal, have legal probs/probs w relationships, employment or finances due to drinking, lose interest in activities and hobbies that used to bring you pleasure
Causes of alcoholisminfluenced by genetic, psychological, social, and environmental factors; usually develops gradually over a period of years; over tiem, excessive drinking alters the normal brain chemistry that is associated with experiencing pleasure, judgement, and control over behavior; this results in you craving alcohol to restore good feelings/remove neg ones
What is a quote regarding alcohol? (2):The man takes a drink. The drink takes a drink. The drink takes the man." "it is as though I was born a few drinks shy of normal."
Signs someone else is addicited to alcoholchanges in personality/behavior like a lack of motivation, irritability, agitation; bloodshot eyes, frequent bloody noses, shakes, tremors, slurred speech, change in daily routine, lack of concern for personal hygien, unusual need for money, financial problems, changes in friends and activities
you may have an addiction to prescription drugs if:you're not using meds in way they are prescribed, take larger doses or take the drug more often than the presc calls for; use med in form not prescribed (crushing pills); using meds prescribed for others, avoid telling doc about all the drugs you're taking; look in other poepls' med cab for drugs to take, take prescribed meds iwth alcohol or other drugs
Other signs you may have a drug need more and more of a subs to get same effects; feel strange when drug wears off (shaky, depressed, sick to stomach, sweat, headaches); tired or not hungry, in severe cases, confused, seizures, or run a fever; can't stop yourself from using drug; still using even though its making bad things happen in your life; spend lot of time thinking about the drug (how to get more, etc); have hard time giving yourself limits, migh say you'll only use "so much" but then can't stop; lost interest in things you once liked to do; begun having trouble doing normal daily thinkgs like cooking/working, drive or do other dangerous things when you are taking drugs; borrow or steal money to pay for drugs; hide drug use or effect it is having on you from others; having trouble getting along with others (they complain how you've changed"; sleep too much or too little; eat more or less than you used to; look different (bloodshot eyes, bad breath, shakes, tremors, frequent bloody noses, weight gain/loss); new set of friens with whom you do drugs and go to diff places to use the drugs
What is alcoholism clinically referred to as now?AUD- Alcohol use disorder represents both alcohol dependence adn abuse
According to DSM-5, any person meeting ___ of the ____ critera during the same 12 month period would be diagnosed with AUD. Severity is based on____2, 11, number of criteria met
_____ twins have higher rate of alcoholism compared to _____ twinsmonozygotic, dizygotic
_____ twins have same rate as _______dizygotic, other non-twin siblings
_____ and ______ factors may contribute either to an increased susceptibility for developing alochol use genetic, environmental
alochol inhibits the flow of _____ through ______ receptors and enhances ______ activity , resulting in a n _____ effect on neuronsions, glutamate, GABA, inhibitory
alochol (increases/decreases) excitatory activity of glutamate?decreases
Upreguation: Glutamate receptor sites _____ in the _____ as a compensatory response; this results in the _____potential excitability of ______increase; hippocampus; increased; neurons
Glutamate receptors _____ to the long-term presence of alcohol and become ______. This state of hyperexcitability may add to negative symptoms of _____adapt; overactive; withdrawal
alcohol (increases/decreases) the _____ activity of GABAincreases; inhibitory
What is downregulation?fewer GABA receptors (due to increasd activity)
the decreased ____ and increased ______ activity has a _____ effect on the brain which include feelings for peasure, calmness, sleepinessglutamate (excitatory), GABA (inhibitory), sedative
Decreased ______ combined with deciency in _______ may also contribute to ______ of the brain with the absence of alcoholinhibition; GABA receptors; overexcitation
Acute alcohol use directly stimulates release of ____ and _____Serotonin; dopamine
Serotonin is related to _____ and dopamine is related to ____-emotional expression and endorphins; motivation and rewarding effects of alcohol
so __________ contributes to the "high of intoxication" as well as cravings to drinkS and D
Chronic alochol use increases ____ receptors and decreases _____ contributing to depression in people who are physically dependentD, S
Low to mod alcohol consuption (1/2 drinks/day) causes _____ and slighly decreases _____, resulting in a mild decrease in _____peripheral vasodilation, contractility of heart, BP
There may even be a _______ benefit based on changes in _____ clotting mechanism and increases in ______cardiovascular; clotting; high-density lipoprotein (HDL- aids in preventing againt thickening and loss of elasticity of artherial walls)
How many drinks/day are considered heavy drinking?3 or more
Heavy drinking plays a role in _____ as well as increased risk for ____ and ________hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy
effects may range from _______ to ______ to ____ due to decreased contractility of the heartleft ventricular impairment, arrhythiia, heart failure
______ may occur in the hands and feet due to alochol?perifpheral neuropathy
_____ and ________ syndrom eoften occure together and in people with alcoholism due to a lack of vitamin ___. Wernick, Korakoff, B1
Wernicke's encepholopathy causes ___________brain damage to the thalamus and hypothalmus
Korsakoff syndrome occurs when there is damage to the parts of the brain involved with_______memory
the neurotoxic effects of alochol consumption may lead to ______ of the _________, ____ regions, and deeper structures in the ________atrophy of the cerebral cortex, basal forebrain, limbic system
___________ deficiency may cause blood vessels in the _____ region to break and damage these portions Thiamine; hypothalamic
According to this hypothesis, individuals may develop ______ deficits associated iwth brain matter _________ such as mild or transient ____- disorders or severe __________cognitive; shrinkage; amesic; short-term memory loss
the _____________ is involved in planning and regulating behavior, inhibitn gunnecessary/unwanted behaviors, supportive adaptive "exceutive control" skills such as goal-directed behaviors, good judgement, and problem-solving abilitespre frontal cortex
the brain cahgnes int eh _________ lobes are most prominet as individuals with long term alcohol abuse agefrontal
Individuals w alcoholism have difficulty w the same kinds of tasks pts with non-substances related damage to the ___________ haveR hemisphere
what is the R hemisphere responsible for?emotional processing, nonverbal emotional cues, recognizing facial expressions
Alcohol stimulates the release of ________ from cells orignition from ___________ area of the braindopamine; ventral tegmental area (VTA)
After alcohol has been introduced into the sustme, dopamine released into the ___ and ______ has been thought to reinforce drinking behavior by making the experience seem satisfactoryPrefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens
With each use of alcohol this pathway becomes strongly linked with cues like _, _, or ________smells, location, paraphernalia = ALCOHOL DEPENDENCY
Upon encountering suck cues, ___ release triggers an overpowerind desire for aochol; Recently there has been evidence tha t_____ may promote reward based learning, which my facilitate addictiondopamine; neuroplasticity
What might a therapist see in a clinic regarding alcoholism?Behavioral/psychological impairments, intoxication/adverse effects; withdrawal S/S
What are 3 examples of Medication assisted treatment (MAT) for alcoholism?Acamprosate (campral), Naltrexone (revia/vivitrol), Nalmefene (selincro), disulfiram (antabuse)
_____ reduces Sx of protacted withdrawal (insomina, anxiety, restlessness, dysphoria) by normalizing brain systems disrupted by chronic alcohol consumptionAcamprosate (campral)
_____ redcues relapse by blocking receptrs involved in rewarding effects of drinking similarly to how it blocks effects of opioidsNaltrexone (revia/vivitrol) nalmefene (selincro)
_________ inhibits the oxidation of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the body's metabolism of alochol; if an individual takes the medication followed by alochol consumption, it will result in aversive reactionDisulfiram (antabuse)

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