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Studying clues to past climate and long term and short term changes in climate

rename
hasanahatesscience's version from 2015-12-07 13:02

Section 1

Question Answer
what are proxy recordsstores of information in tree rings, ice cores, fossils that can be measured to give clues about the climate in the past
ice cores can be cut into thin slices and air bubbles can be analyzed forgases that were in the atmosphere at the time. tests established how muchcCO2 methane and nitrous oxide that was in the air when the air bubble formed.
we know that during warm periods levels of greenhouse gases were higher
during cooler periodsghg levels are low
tree rings and coral reefs add one layer of growth every year
rings are the thickest in yearswith good growing conditions
warm wet year will producea thick growth ring
a cold dry year will producea thin ring.
layers of sediment and layers of rock can give clues such asplant pollen or fossils to the climate at the time in that location
fossils and pollen grains can be usedto identify plants that grew thousands of years prev
scientists who study this are calledpalynlogists. can find out organism in that area.
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Section 2

Question Answer
plate tectonics (continental drift)earths continenets have moved over the surface of the globe fora long per of time. one large super continent split up to form continents we see today
effects on climate when continents move includeocean currents and wind patterns change (HEAT TRANSFER AFFECTED) affects distribution of land mass, uplifting of new mountain ranges and weathering
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Section 3

Question Answer
long term cycles in climateice ages and interglacial periods
ice agetime in earths history when earth is colder and covered in ice
interglacial periodtime between ice ages when earth warms up
20000 years agoearth experienced last ice age. avg temp was 10c lower than today
ice sheets about3km thick covered canada. we are now in a INTERGLACIAL WARMING PERIOD
frequency of warm interglaicla periodsfor the last 8000 years or more earths climate had cycled between both of these, occured about every 100000 years
earths orbit around sun changes in 3 main wayseccentricity (shape of orbit). Tilt (angle slowly decreasing. Precession of tilt (wobble)/direction of tilt changes
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Section 4

Question Answer
short term variations in climatewere because of volcanic eruptions.
volcanic eruptionsspew rock dust and gases high into the atmosphere, ejected particles of sulfer dioxide reflected suns energy back into space.
what is el ninoa RECURRING CHANGE in PACIFIC WINDS and OCEAN CURRENTS THAT BRING WARM MOIST AIR To WEST COAST of SOUTH AMERICA
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