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Study Design

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degimeko's version from 2017-09-25 02:36

Section 1

Question Answer
Research question; Method of studyTitle
Overview/summary of work, highlights of results only, statement of significanceAbstract
Background info: Hx, pathophys, clinical presentation, review work of others, rationale for present studyIntroduction
Study design, subject selection procedures, methods of measurement, description of analytic techniquesMethodology, methods/materials
What happened? Graphics that summarize findings, info obtained from study, analysis/interp of dataresults
meaning/significance of work, critique of study, apologies, build case to support results, most speculative partdiscussion/comment/conclusion
evidence that work of others has been considered, lead to further exploration, shows how much research has been donereferences/bibliography
a set of assumptions, concepts, and propositions that form the basis for someone's view on the world (i.e., their worldview).theoretical framework
a system of ideas intended to explain a phenomenontheory
the reasons the authors conducted the study; theoretical frameworkbackground
the goal of the research; the problem statementstatement of purpose
educated guesses" about relationships or differences - to be affirmed or discounted by the researchhypotheses
to place current study in context of what is known/not knownliterature review
These two things drive the studyResearch questions, hypotheses
who the subjects are, how they are obtained/selectedparticipants (sample)
equipment, apparatus, measuring instruments) - what was used, quality of measuring instrumentsmaterials
how study was conducted; what subjects did or what was done to themprocedures
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Section 2

Question Answer
whether the study provides an unbiased estimate of what it claims to estimateinternal validity
whether the results from the study can be generalized to some other populationexternal validity
Reproducibility of measurements How closely do repeated measurements on the same subject agree? focuses upon the consistency with which a measurement is takenreliability
The extent to which an instrument consistently measures what it is supposed to measureinstrument reliability
Used to assess the degree to which different raters/observers give consistent estimates of the same phenomenon.Intra-rater Reliability
Measures the ability of a test to reject the null hypothesis when it should be rejected.power
As sample size increases, ________ increasespower
reases power Participants and setting Sampling and sample size Data collectionstudy design
Summarize main findings Highlight study strengths Explain findings Compare findings with previous work Suggest implications of findings Suggest future directionsdiscussion
Non-technical interpretation of results Linking results to original purposes and hypothesesconclusions
A group with a commonality that you can follow over timecohort
Study design good for figuring out what's behind outbreaks. Asks "What happened?"case-control
You begin with the outcome and look for features of ppl who share that outcome and discover relevant past habitscase-control
An individual who already has the outcome you're looking forcase
a type of observational study that analyzes data collected from a population, or a representative subset, at a specific point in time Asks what's happening right now cross sectional studycross-sectional
AKA "prevalence survey," can estimate dz frequency w/in a groupcross-sectional
Case control study that begins and ends in the present but involves a backward look to collect info about past events. Asks retrospective cohort
Case control study that begins in the present but ends in the future with the study groups' outcomes. Asks what will happenprospective cohort
a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.randomized control trial
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