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Studies and Theories (Psychology)

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gemmalesley's version from 2017-09-19 10:36

Adolescence

Question Answer
The Pendulum Task - Formal Operational ThoughtGiven string and weights. Can 1) Change length of string 2) Change weight 3) Vary strength of push = Which one affects the time taken for one swing of the pendulum?
Montemeyer & Eisen (1977)Change from referring to self by physical attributes, to more abstract like religious
Zimmerman et al (1997)Developmental outcomes related to self-esteem in adolescence study (lots of info)
Steinburg (1999)Only 5-10% of adolescents have a "bad" relationship with parents during adolescence
Phinnery et al (2005)Study looking at "relatedness" between adolescents and their parents. Cross cultural study. Found non-Europeans higher level of relatedness. Age is a big factor in relatedness.
Levitt, Guacci-Franco & Levitt (1993)Sources of support for adolescents. Found peers are an important source but family is high too.
Cairns & Cairns (1994)Friendships longer lasting as children get older (40% lasted at 14-15 compared to 20% at 8-9)
Dunphy (1963)Cliques and crowds (cliques age 10-14, crowds age 13-15)
Li et al (2010)Romantic relationships: Chinese v Canadians (age 16-17) - Chinese less involved than Canadians, closer to parents than peers
memorize

Adolescent Risk-Taking

Question Answer
Gullone et al (2000)Adolescent risk-taking questionnaire: 4 types - rebellious, anti-social, reckless, thrill seeking
Tilton-Weaver et al (2010)Parental control longitudinal study - found that negative reactions to behaviour led to secrecy
Steinburg & Monahan (2007)Analysis of 3600 adolescent's susceptibility to peer influence. From 3 large scale studies. Found significant differences in peer influence between ages 13 and 18
Vitaro et al (2001)Predictors of gambling.
Gardner, Dishion & Connell (2008)Longitudinal study of 17-19 year olds measuring self-regulation methods @ 17. Low self regulation & deviant peers = higher chance of ABS at 19.
memorize

Adulthood

Question Answer
Boyd, Rollins & Feldman (1970)Marital satisfaction through the family life-cycle. Found satisfaction dips after having children (lowest when children in school) and rises again, to its highest point at retirement.
Bumpass & Aquilino (1995)The middle-age squeeze.
memorize

Aging

Question Answer
Life expectancyRose from 47 in 1900 to 81 in 2012 (in the UK)
Lifestyle effect on life expectancyProfessionals live longer than unskilled workers
Doty et al (1984)Age-related decline in sense of smell. Found males have less ability and it peaks from about 15 to 50, then declines.
Bolla et al (1991)Memory complaints in healthy aging. Found recalling names most difficult out of a few skills, difficulty more for those 85.
Baltes & Staudinger (2000)Wisdom assessment using life event stories. More complex answers = wiser. Older people wiser due to life experience etc.
memorize

Dying and Death

Question Answer
Lansdown & Benjamin (1985)Development in the concept of death. Reversible (sleeping) -> finality, inevitability
Knaus et al (1995)31% of patients wanted DNR at end of life but only 13% of their doctors were aware of it (only 14% had DNR on chart)
memorize