Structures of the respiratory system

tigrebright's version from 2015-10-05 12:48

Section 1

Question Answer
upper respiratory tractconsists of the mouth, nose, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx and trachea
lower respiratory tractconsists of the bronchial tree and lungs
nostrilsexternal openings of the nose
nasal septuma wall of cartilage that divides the nose into two equal sections
ciliathin hairs located just inside the nostrils that filter incoming air to remove debris
musous membranesspecialized tissue lining the nose
mucusa slippery secretion produced by the mucous membranes that protects and lubricates tissues in the nose
olfactory receptorsnerve endings that act as receptors for the sense of smell

Section 2

Question Answer
tonsils and adenoidspart of the lymphatic system that help protect the body from infection coming through the nose or mouth
paranasal sinusesair-filled cavities lined with mucous membranes and located in the bones of the skull
frontal sinuseslocated in the frontal bone just above the eyebrows
sphenoid sinuseslocated in the sphenoid bone behind the eye and under the pituitary gland
maxillary sinuseslocated in the maxillary bones under the eyes
ethmoid sinuseslocated in the ethmoid bones between the nose and the eye
pharynxaka throat, receives air after it passes through the nose or mouth
nasopharynxfirst division of the pharynx
oropharynxsecond division of the pharynx
laryngopharynxthird division of the pahrynx

Section 3

Question Answer
larynxaka voice box, triangular chamber located between the pharynx and the trachea
thyroid cartilageaka Adam's apple, the largest cartilage supporting the larynx
epiglottisthe lid-like structure at the base of the tongue that closes off the larynx so that food and water do not enter the trachea
tracheaaka windpipe transports air to and from the lungs
bronchitwo large tubes which branch out from the trachea and convey air to the two lungs
bronchiolesthe smallest branches of the bronchi
alveoliaka air sacs; this is where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
pulmonarymeans relating to or affecting the lungs
surfactanta detergent-like substance produced by the alveoli which reduces the surface tension of the fluid in the lungs.
lungsthe essential organs of respiration
right lungthe larger of the two lungs and has 3 lobes-upper, middle, lower
left lunghas only 2 lobes- upper and lower-because the heart is located on that side of the body

Section 4

Question Answer
mediastinumthe middle section of the chest cavity,located between the lungs
pleuraa thin, moist and slippery membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the thoracic cavity
parietal pleurathe outer layer of the pleura
visceral pleurathe inner layer of pleura that covers each lung; it is attached directly to the lungs
pleural cavitythe thin fluid-filled space between the parietal and visceral pleural membranes
diaphragma dome-shaped sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen
phrenic nerves stimulate the diaphragm and cause it to contract
respirationthe exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide
inhalationthe diaphragm contracts and pulls downward
exhalationthe diaphragm relaxes and moves upward
external respirationthe act of bringing air in and out of the lungs from the outside environment
internal respirationthe exchange of gases within the cells of the blood and tissues

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