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Structure of Early Civilizations

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celine's version from 2018-07-05 18:47

Section 1

Question Answer
Agreement; in the Judeo-Christian heritage, an agreement between God and humankind.Covenant
A system of writing originating in Mesopotamia in which a wedge-shaped stylus was used to press symbols into clay.Cuneiform
A diaspora is any movement of the citizens of a population sharing the same ethnic descent. Diaspora (An example, of a Diaspora in history can be when Jews decided to live outside of Palestine, after the babylonians took control)
A system of picture writing used in Egypt.Hieroglyphics
One of many subcastes in the Hindu caste systemJati
The concept developed by the Zhou dynasty that the deity granted a dynasty the right to rule and took away that right if the dynasty did not rule wisely.Mandate of heaven
Referring to a social system in which descent and inheritance are traced through the motherMatrilineal
The belief in one godMonotheism
Animal bones or shells used by Chinese priests to receive messages from the gods.Oracle bones
Pertaining to a social system in which the father is the head of the family.Patriarchal
An Egyptian monarchPharaoh
The belief in many godsPolytheism
Toltec deity; Feathered Serpent; adopted by Aztecs as a major godQuetzalcóatl
The moral law of the Hebrews.Ten Commandments
A government ruled by God or by Church leaderstheocracy
The first five books of the Jewish scriptureTorah
The social division in Hindu society that fell in rank below the caste system; it was occupied by those who carried out undesirable occupations such as undertaking, butchering, and waste collection.Untouchables
A caste in the Hindu caste systemVarna
The oral hymns to the Aryan deities, later written down, that formed the basis of the Hindu beliefs during the Vedic Age (1500–500 B.C.E.).Vedas
Jehovah, the god of the Jews.Yahweh
A multitiered pyramid constructed by Mesopotamiansziggurat
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Section 2

Question Answer
The Egyptian civilization was similar to the Sumerian civilization in(B) its system of social stratification
The earliest civilizations in both the Eastern and Western hemispheres were similar in(D) their practice of polytheism
The Indus valley civilization(A) relied heavily on communal planning
The early civilization with the least-developed technology was(A) Mesoamerican
The roots of classical India included(D) Vedic traditional literature
Shang China(C) contributed to the development of central government in China
Early societies of South America(A) were challenged by geographic limitations
Results of cultural diffusion among early civilizations included(B) the legend of Quetzalcóatl
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Section 3

Question Answer
The Egyptian civilization was similar to the Sumerian civilization in (A) its reliance on natural defense barriers (B) its system of social stratification (C) its political structure (D) the extent to which its culture was diffused(B) its system of social stratification Both Egypt and Sumer had societies comprising various social classes of the elite, peasants, and slaves. Whereas Egypt enjoyed natural defense barriers, Sumer did not (A). Sumer was governed by kings of local city-states, whereas the Egyptian pharaoh was the supreme ruler (C). Although the Egyptians largely developed themselves culturally, Sumerian culture was widely diffused by later conquerors (D).
The earliest civilizations in both the Eastern and Western hemispheres were similar in (A) their location at similar latitudes (B) their technological knowledge (C) their reliance on the flooding of major rivers in their midst (D) their practice of polytheism(D) their practice of polytheism All the earliest agricultural civilizations worshipped many gods. They were located in different latitudes (A) and enjoyed different levels of technology (B). The civilizations of the Western Hemisphere did not rely on the flooding of rivers (C).
The Indus valley civilization (A) relied heavily on communal planning (B) is best studied through its written records (C) was isolated from other river valley civilizations because of surrounding mountains (D) declined after the arrival of Aryan invaders(A) relied heavily on communal planning The presence of granaries and well-planned street grids in the cities of the Harappan civilization of the Indus valley is evidence of considerable community planning. The writing of the Harappan civilization is so far undecipherable (B). Indus valley peoples bypassed mountain barriers and traded by sea (C). Their civilization had already declined markedly before the arrival of the Aryans (D).
The early civilization with the least-developed technology was (A) Mesoamerican (B) Harappan (C) Egyptian (D) Sumerian(A) Mesoamerican Early Mesoamerican civilizations did not even have the knowledge of the wheel, whereas the other civilizations mentioned did not have to rely only on human muscle for construction or irrigation projects.
The roots of classical India included (A) the Aryan written language, or Sanskrit (B) the egalitarian Aryan society (C) Aryan agricultural knowledge (D) Vedic traditional literature(D) Vedic traditional literature The traditions of the Vedas became an integral part of Indian society. Sanskrit, the language of the Aryans, was originally an oral language only (A). Aryan society consisted of a number of classes based on skin color, which would become the foundation of the Hindu caste system (B). Aryans were nomadic peoples who learned of agriculture from the Dravidian people of India (C).
Shang China (A) left no decipherable written records (B) was prevented by natural barriers from trading with other early civilizations (C) contributed to the development of central government in China (D) was less urbanized than the Nile valley civilization(C) contributed to the development of central government in China The Shang brought the settlements of northern China under the control of a centralized government. The Shang were the first Chinese dynasty to leave written records (A). Although natural barriers lessened trade, the Shang carried out some trade with South Asia and Southwest Asia (B). A number of cities arose in China under the Shang (D).
Early societies of South America (A) were challenged by geographic limitations (B) developed societies that had no knowledge of metals (C) traded widely with regions to their north (D) built upon Mesoamerican cultural traditions(A) were challenged by geographic limitations The rugged Andean terrain hindered political unity. Early South American societies were organized into local governments (A) and knew the use of copper (B). Trade with the north was limited because of geographical barriers (C), preventing South American societies from building upon the traditions of Mesoamerica (D).
Results of cultural diffusion among early civilizations included (A) the invention of the wheel (B) the legend of Quetzalcóatl (C) the cultivation of potatoes (D) Harappan sewage systems(B) the legend of Quetzalcóatl The legend of Quetzalcóatl diffused throughout early Mesoamerican cultures and civilizations. The invention of the wheel (A) was an independent contribution of the Sumerians. The cultivation of potatoes (C) was limited to the early Andean societies and civilizations. Harappan sewage systems (D) were unique to the people of the Indus valley civilization.
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