Structural Terms

newlyfe's version from 2018-04-04 19:22


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Bearing Wallis designed to carry the weight of structural components above, through itself, and to the supporting components below.
Beama horizontally placed wooden, steel or engineered member which supports floor framing members.
Columna vertical compression member whose height exceeds three times its thickness and whose width is less than one and one-half times its thickness.
Corner Postan assembly of perhaps three or even four vertical studs nailed together tightly to make up a corner framing element in a dwelling.
Cripplea grouping of short studs commonly found over (or sometimes below) openings, such as for windows and doors, where a full-length stud could not fit.
FootingTypically seen at the bottom of the foundation or stem walls, the footing is generally made of poured reinforced concrete
Foundationthe wall below the floor nearest grade serving as a support for a structural part of a home.
Headera horizontally placed wooden framing member that is made to support the load when an opening is made in a load-bearing wall.
Jack Studa wooden member or stud placed at the sides of an opening in a load-bearing partition, and designed to support a header assembly above.
Joistprovide a nailing and support system for the floor sheathing and for the floor itself.
King Studnailed to jack studs and are full-height the assembly between the plates.
Pieran isolated vertical column of masonry whose horizontal dimension measured at right angles to its thickness is not less than three times its thickness nor greater than six times its thickness and whose height is less than five times its length.
Pilastera masonry structural element defined by its sectional configurations and heights.
Pitchthe incline of the roof expressed as a fraction derived by dividing the rise by the span
Post a vertical member which may be made of steel, concrete, wood or masonry materials.
Raftera wooden framing member extending from the ridge to beyond the top plate of an exterior wall, or serving as a connecting point between two sloping sections of the roof structure.
Ridgeis installed at the intersection of roof rafters at their uppermost point.
Roof Trussa pre-engineered assembly of smaller individual framing components attached together and in a design suited to provide greater support and economy, as well as a faster installation time. It takes the place of rafters, attic (or ceiling) joists, and ridge beams, and is hoisted and nailed in place, forming the entire roof and attic structure.
Sheathingthe outer skin of the dwelling.
Sill PlateThe first course of horizontal lumber placed on top of and attached to the foundation wall
Slopethe incline of the roof expressed as a ratio of the vertical rise to the horizontal run, where the run is some portion of the span.
Slope RatioA roof that rises 4 inches for every 1 foot
Sole Platethe first course of horizontally placed lumber that goes on top of the sub-flooring material.
Sub-Floormaterials (usually plywood, OSB or planking) which are attached to joists and make up the top structural portion of the platform assembly on which occupants walk.
Trimmer a wooden member or stud placed at the sides of an opening in a load-bearing partition, and designed to support a header assembly above.