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Steve Lomeli Genetics

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wahicebe's version from 2018-04-16 22:32

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The Law of SegregationMendel's first law, stating that the two alleles in a pair segregate (separate from each other) into different gametes during gamete formation.
Alleledifferent types of the alternative versions of a gene that may produce distinguishable phenotypic effects are called
Dominant AlleleAn allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote. Only need 1 copy of this allele to show dominant trait.
Recessive AlleleAn allele whose phenotypic effect is not observed in a heterozygote - it is "masked" or hidden.
GenotypeThe genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism. (Ex: PP, Pp or pp)
PhenotypeThe EXPRESSED/observable physical and physiological traits of an organism, which are determined by its genetic makeup.
Punnett SquareA diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the predicted genotypic results of random fertilization in genetic crosses between individuals of known genotype.
HomozygousHaving two identical alleles for a given gene.
HeterozygousHaving two different alleles for a given gene.
The Law of Independent AssortmentMendel's second law, stating that each pair of alleles segregates, or assorts, independently of each other pair during gamete formation; applies when genes for two characters are located on different pairs of homologous chromosomes or when they are far enough apart on the same chromosome to behave as though they are on different chromosomes.
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