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ismailalmokyad's version from 2018-01-17 00:26

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Question Answer
1-how to treat psychotic episode of schizophrenia that not controlled with typical antipsychotic medications.use atypical antipsychotic called clozapine is 2nd line
2-what is the s/e of clozapine1-neutopenia, follow neutropenia/agranulocyosis. preform weekly during first 6 months, and monthly thereafter.
2-weight gain
3-metabolic syndrome
4-seizures
5-pulmonary embolus
6-myocarditis
7-excessive salivation
8-constipation
9-ileus.
3-what is the feature of turner syndrome ?1-webbed neck,
2-lympedema (hands and feet)
3-broad chest with widely spaced nipples
4-high arched palate
5-low posterior hairline.
4-how to work-up possible turner syndrome-karyotype analysis, once dx confirmed do
1-4 extremity BP and echo to look for aortic coarctation.
2- Abdominal U/S look for horseshoe kidney.
3-Every few years during childhood, screening for hypothyroidism and celiac disease (increased risk of these autoimmune conditions.

NB:normal intelligence is expected.
5-what is the psychiatric disorder associated with fragile x syndromeAutism
6-How does fragile x syndrome present-Males
-long, narrow faces
-large ears
-large testicles.
6-how does Rett syndrome. present ?1-almost exclusive for girls.
2-Developmental regression
3-microcephaly
4-epilepsy
5-stereotypic hand movements,

-Girls with this disorder appear normal at birth and have no dysmorphic features.
-The hallmark of Rett syndrome is near constant repetitive hand movements while awake.
7-how is the chance that a mother of turner syndrome baby have another daughter with turner syndrome?same as other population
8-how does ADPKD present1-Hypertension is a common early manifestation.
2-hematuria
3-proteinuria
4-flank pain.

-Most patients with ADPKD have progressive renal insufficiency and 50% require renal transplant by age 60
9-how to dx ADPKDPatients with suspected ADPKD should be screened with renal ultrasound. The presence of enlarged kidneys with multiple bilateral cysts is usually diagnostic
10-how to dx Primary hyperaldosteronismpresent with secondary hypertension and is typically diagnosed when plasma renin levels are very low (often undetectable) and aldosterone levels are inappropriately high. Primary hyperaldosteronism is often associated with hypokalemia.
11-how to screen family of ADPKD dx ptrenal us if age >18, this need consent bc it affect life expectancy.
12-what is the hematological complication of methotrexate and how to tttmacrocytic anemia, by inhibiting the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. treat with folinic acid (not folic acid)
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