Step 1 - Rapid Review Associations 3

ruhland1's version from 2015-06-23 14:30


Question Answer
Esophageal cancer major associationSquamous worldwide, Adeno in US
Food poisoning major associationS. Aureus
Gene involved in cancer major associationp53
Glomerulonephritis (adults)Berger’s disease (IgA nephropathy)
Gynecologic malignancy major associationendometrial carcinoma
Heart murmur major associationMitral valve prolapse
Mitral valve bacterial endocarditis major associationRheumatic fever
Tricuspid valve bacterial endocarditis major associationIV drug abuse
Aortic valve bacterial endocarditis major associationsecond affected in rheumatic fever
Helminth infection (U.S.)1. Enterobius vermicularis 2. Ascaris lumbricoides
Hematoma-epidural major associationRupture of middle meningeal artery (arterial bleeding is fast) Talk then Die.

Section 2

Question Answer
Hematoma-subdural major associationRuptuer of bridging veins (trauma; venous bleeding is slow)
HemochromatosIS major associationmultiple blood transfusions (can result in CHF and ↑ risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
Hepatocellular carcinomaCirrhotic liver (often associated with Hep B and C)
Hereditary bleeding disorder major associationvon Willebrand’s disease
Hereditary harmless jaundiceGilbert’s syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
HLA-B27 major associationPAIR ( Psoriasis, Ankylosing spondylitis, IBD(ulcerative colitis), Reiter’s syndrome
HLA-DR3 or DR4 major associationDMI, RA, SLE
Holosystolic murmur major associationVSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation
Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasisVirchow’s triad (results in venous thrombosis)
Secondary HTN major associationrenal disease
Hypoparathyroidism major associationThyroidectomy

Section 3

Question Answer
Hypopituitarism major associationAdenoma
Infection in blood transfusion major associationHep C
Kidney stones major association1. Calcium = radioopaque 2. Struvite (ammonium) = radioopaque formed by urease positive organisms (proteusm, staph) 3. Uric acid = radiolucent
Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L to R becomes R to L)Eisenmenger’s syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA, results pulmonary HTN/polycythemia
Liver disease major associationAlcoholic liver disease
Lysosomal storage disease major associationGaucher’s disease
Male cancer major associationProstatic carcinoma
Malignancy associated with noninfectious feverHodgkin’s lymphoma
Malignant skin tumor major associationBasal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
Mental retardation major association1. Down syndrome 2. Fragile X syndrome

Section 4

Question Answer
Mets to bone major associationBreast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney
Mets to brain major associationLung, breast, skin(melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI
Mets to liver major associationColon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, lung carcinomas
Mitral valve stenosis major associationRheumatic heart disease
Motor neuron disease major associationALS (LMN + PMN)
Myocarditis major associationCoxsackie B
Neoplasms in Kids major association1. ALL 2. Cerebellar medulloblastoma
Nephrotic syndrome (adults) major associationMembranous glomerulonephritis (subpithelial spike and dome)
Nephrotlc syndrome (kids)MInimal change disease, podocyte fusion (assoc with infections/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)
Obstruction of male urinary tract major associationBPH ~
Opening snap major associationMitral stenosis
Major Opportunistic infections in AIDSPneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) pneumonia
Organ recelving metasisAdrenal glands (due to rich blood supply) -

Section 5

Question Answer
Organ sending metslung> breast, stomach
Osteomyelitis major associationS. Aureus, Salmonella in SCAnemia, Foot puncture rubber boot is Psuedo Aeru(likes moisture), Hip replacement is S. Epid, Vertebral Osteomyel is TB (pott's dz).
Osteomyelitis in patients with sickle cell Salmonella
Osteomyelitis with IV drug use Pseudomonas
Ovarian metastasIs from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)
Ovarian tumor (benign) Serous cystadenoma
Ovarian tumor (malignant) Serous cystadenocarcinoma
Pancreatic tumor major association Adenocarcinoma (head of pancreas)
Pancreatitis (acute) major association EtOH and gallstones
Pancreatitis (chronic) major association EtOH (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

Section 6

Question Answer
Patient with All /Cll /AMl /CMl Allchild, CLL: adult> 60, AML: adult> 60, CML: adult 35-50
Patient with Hodgkin's disease major associationYoung male (except nodular sclerosis type: female)
Pelvic inflammatory disease major associationNeisseria gonarrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22)(bcr/abl) major associationCML(may sometimes be associated with AlljAMl)
Pituitary tumor major association1. Prolactinoma 2. Somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
Pneumonia, hospital acquired Klebsiella
Primary amenorrhea major associationTurner's syndrome (XO)
Primary bone tumor (adults) major associationMultiple myeloma
Primary hyperaldosteronism major associationAdenoma of adrenal cortex
Primary hyperparathyroidism major association1. Adenomas 2. Hyperplasia 3. Carcinoma
Primary liver cancer major associationHepatocellular carcinoma (also known as hepatoma)

Section 7

Question Answer
Pulmonary hypertension major associationCOPD
Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities major associationBuerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)
Renal tumor major associationrenal cell carcinoma, associated with von Hippel-lindau and adult polycystic kidney disease, paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)
RH failure due to pulm causeCor pulmonale
S3 (protodiastolic gallop)↑ventricular filling (L→R shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure(CHF)
S4 (presystolic gallop)Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
Secondary hyperparathyroidism major associationHypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
Sexually transmitted disease major associationChlamydia

Section 8

Question Answer
SIADH major associationSmall cell carcinoma of the lung
Major site of diverticulaSigmoid colon
Site of metastasis1. Regional lymph nodes 2. Liver
Sites of atherosclerosisAbdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
Stomach cancer major associationAdenocarcinoma
Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levelsZE syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas) confirmed by secretin test. Normally an injection results in a reduction of gastrin and an increase in panc sec, but since this tumor behaves as panc tissue it induces gastrin sec. behaves
T(14:18)Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
T(8:14)Burkitt’s lymphoma (c-myc activation)
T(9:22)Philadelphia chromosome-CML (bcr-abl hybrid)

Section 9

Question Answer
Temporal arteritis major associationrisk of IL blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery
Testicular tumor major associationSeminoma
Thyroid cancer major associationPapillary carcinoma
Tumor in women major associationLeiomyoma (estrogen dependent)
Major Tumor in infancyHemangioma
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)Neuroblastoma (malignant)

Section 10

Question Answer
Major Type of Hodgkin'sNodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity. lymphocytic predominance. lymphocytic depletion
Major Type of non-Hodgkin's Diffuse large cell
UTI major associationE. coli , Staphylococcus soprophyticus (young women)
Viral encephalitis major associationHSV
Major Vitamin deficiency (U.S.) Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply)
Sensitivity=TP / (TP + FN); A / A + C
Specificity = TN / (TN + FP) 53
Positive predictive value =TP / (TP + FP) 53
Negative predictive value = TN / (TN + FN) 53
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1, p+q=l

Section 11

Question Answer
Henderson-Hasselbalch equationpH = 6.1 + log [HC03-] / 0.03 Pco2 (6.1 is pKa used for CO2 in medicine)
Volume of distributionV d = amount of drug in the body/ plasma drug concentration
Clearance = rate of elimination of drug
Half-life (0.7 x Vd )/CL
Loading doseCp x (Vd/F) Cp= desired conc in plasma, Vd= how drug distb in body, rule is up lipophil so up Vd, and F= bioavailabilty so if conc in plasma is achieved we must account for molecule binding proteins, a reason why dose of warfarin must be lowered in with phenytoin use because it displaces warfarin from plasma protiein/albumin thus increasing its bioavailabilty.
Maintenance doseCp x CL/F
Cardiac output CO = rate of 02 consumption / (arterial 02 content - venous 02 content)
Cardiac output CO = stroke volume x heart rate

Section 12

Question Answer
Mean arterial pressure MAP =cardiac output x total peripheral resistance = 1/3 systolic + 2/3 diastolic
Stroke volume SV = end diastolic volume - end systolic volume
Ejection fraction =stroke volumex 100 / end diastolic volume
Resistance =driving pressure/ flow
Net filtration pressure P net =[(Pc - Pi) - (PIc -PIi)
GFR = U(inulin) x V/P(inulin) = C(inulin) = Kf[(Pgc - Pbs) -(PI gc - PIbs)]
Effective renal plasma flow =Upah x V/Ppah = Cpah
Renal blood flow =RPF / (1-Hct)
Filtration fraction =GFR/RPF
Free water clearanceC(h2O) = V-C(osm)
Physiologic dead space =Vt x (PaCO2-PeCO2)/PaCO2