Step 1 - Rapid Review Associations 2

mofifapu's version from 2016-10-29 14:05


Question Answer
“Chocolate cyst” of ovaryEndometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrilsHomer Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)
Colony of mucoid pseudomonas in lungsCF (CFTR mutation results in fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)
Degeneration of dorsal column nervesTabes Dorsalis (tertiary syphilis)
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
Desquamated epithelium casts in sputumCurschmann’s spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)
Dlsarrayed granulosa cells in eoslnophilic fluidCall-Exner bodies (granulosa theca cell tumor of the ovary)
Dysplastic squamous cervlcal cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromaslaKoilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)
Enlarged cells with intranuclear Inclusion bodies "Owl's-eye" appearance of CMV
Enlarged thyroid cells w/ ground-glass nuclei "Orphan Annie" eye nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell Mallory bodies (alcoholic liver disease)
Eoslnophihc cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell Lewy body (Parkinson's disease)
Eosinophilic globule in liverCouncilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)
Eosinophilic Inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cellsRabies virus (Lyssavirus)
Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain Senile plaques (Alzheimer's disease)
Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent Inclusions ("owl's eye")Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin's lymphoma)
Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cellsSchiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)
"Hair-on-end" (crew-cut) appearance on x-raybeta thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoieSIS)
hCG elevatedChoriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs With and without embryo)
Heart nodules (inflammatory) Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)
Heterophile antibodiesInfectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)
High level of D-dimers DVT, pulmonary embolism, DlC
"Honeycomb lung" on x-rayInterstitial fibrosis
Hypersegmented neutrophils Megaloblastic anemia (B I2, folate deficiency)
Hypochromic, microcytic anemia Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (HbF sometimes present)
Increased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serumAnencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
Increased uric acid levelsGout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Myeloproliferative disorders, loop and thiazide diuretics
Intranuclera eosinophilic droplet like bodiesCowdry type A bodies ( HSV or yellow fever)
Iron containing nodules in alveolar septumFerrunginous bodies (abestosis: ↑ chance of mesothelioma)
Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes in immunocompromisedChediak-Higashi disease (failure of phagolysosomal formatoin)
Low serum cerulloplasminWilson’s disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)
Lumpy-bumpy appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescencePoststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Lytic (hole punched) bone lesions on x-rayMultiple myeloma
Mammary gland (“blue-domed) cystFibrocystic change of the breast
Monoclonal antibody spike1. Muliple myeloma (called the M protein, usually IgG or IgA 2. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) 3. Waldenstrom’s (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia
Monoclonal globulin protein in blood/urineBence jones proteins (multiple myeloma [kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine] - Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia
Mucin filled cell with peripheral nucleusSignet ring (gastric carcinoma)
Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium radiograph“String sign” Crohn’s disease
Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystalsGout (hyperuricemia)
Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruliKimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)
“Nutmeg” appearance of liverChronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure
Onion-skin periosteal reactionEwing’s sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)
Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular areaCodman’s triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)
Podocyte fusion on EMMinimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)
Polished, “ivory-like” appearance of bone at cartilage erosionEburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)
Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tauNeurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer’s disease and CJD)
Pseudopalisade tumor cell arrangementGlioblastoma multiforme
RBC casts in urineAcute glomerulonephritis
Rectangular, crystal like inclusion in Leydig cells Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)
Renal epithelial casts in urineAcute toxic/viral nephrosis
Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringentPseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate)
Rib notchingCoarctation of aorta
Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells (starry sky) appearance on histologyBurkitt’s lymphoma (t 8:14) c-myc activation, associated with EBV)
Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neuronsPick bodies (Pick’s disease: progressive dementia, similar to alzheimer’s)
Small granulomatous lesion in lungs (can calcify)Ghon focus - primary TB: mycobacterium bacilli
Small round RBC inclusionsHeinz bodies (G6PD deficiency, alpha thalassemia, chronic liver disease
Soap bubble on x-rayGiant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)
Spikes on BM, dome-like endothelial depositsMembranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome) - associated w/subepithelial (not endothelial) deposits
Stacks of red blood cellsRouleaux formation (high ESR: multiple myeloma)
Stippled vaginal epithelial cellsClue cells (Gardnerella vaginalis)
Tennis Racket cytoplasmic organelles in langerhan cellsBirbeck granules (histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)
Thrombi made of white/red layersLines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)
“Thumb sign” on lateral x-rayEpiglottitis (H. Flu)
Thyroid-like appearance of kidneyChronic bacterial pyelonephritis
Tram-track appearance on LMMembranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuolesFatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)
WBCs that look smudgedCLL (almost always B cell, affects elderly)
Wire loop glomerular appearance on LMLUpus nephropathy
Yellow CSFXanthochromia (SAH)
Actinic (solar) keratosis major associationSquamous cell carcinoma
Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury major associationCushing's ulcer (↑ ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns major associationCurling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon major association Skip lesions (Crohn’s disease - autoimmune)
Aneurysm, dissecting major associationHTN
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta major associationAtherosclerosis
Aortic aneurysm, ascending major associationtertiary syphilis
Atrophy of the mammillary bodies major associationWernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)
Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage) major associationSickle cell anemia (HbS)
Bacteremia/pneumonia (IV drug user) major association S. aureus
Bacteria associated with stomach cancer major association H pylori
Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly) major association Streptococcus pneumoniae
Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids) major associationGroup B streptococcus (newborns), S. pneumoniaejNeisseria meningitidis (kids)
Benign melanocytic nevus major association Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)
Bleeding disorder with Gplb deficiency major associationBernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion)
Brain tumor (adults) major associationSupratentorial: mets>astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) >meningioma > schwannoma
Brain tumor (kids) major associationInfratentorial: medulloblastoma(cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma(cerebrum
Breast cancer major associationInfiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the United States, 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)
Breast mass major association1. Fibrocystic change, 2. Carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
Breast tumor (benign) major association Fibroadenoma
Bug in debilitated, hospitalized pneumonia patient major associationKlebsiella
Cardiac primary tumor in kids major associationRhabdomyoma
Cardiac manifestation of lupus major associationLibman-Sacks endocarditis (non-bacterial, affecting mitral)
Cardiac tumor (adults) major association1. Metastasis 2. Primary myxoma (4:1 Left to right atrium, ball and valve)
Cardiomyopathy major associationDilated cardiomyopathy (40% are familial)
Cerebellar tonsilar herniation major associationArnold-chiari malformation (often causes hydrocephalus)
Chronic arrhythmia major associationAtrial fibrillation (assoc w/high risk of emboli)
Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune) major associationPredisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina major associationDES (a synthetic estrogen) exposure in utero -
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia major association21-hydroxylase deficiency
Congenital cardiac anomaly major associationVSD
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver) major associationDubin-Johnson syndrome ( inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)
Constrictive pericarditis in developing world major associationTuberculosis
Coronary artery involved in thrombosisLAD>RCA>LCA
Cretinism major associationIodine deficit/hypothyroidism
Cushing’s syndrome major association1. Corticosteroid therapy 2. Excess ACTH secretion by pituitary
Cyanosis (early;less common) major associationTetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
Cyanosis (late; more common) major associationVSD, ASD, PDA
Death in CML major associationBlast crisis
Death in SLE major associationLupus nephropathy
Dementia major association1. Alz 2. Multiple infarcts
Demyelinating disease major associationMS
DIC major associationGram - sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn trauma
Major dietary deficitIron
Diverticulum in pharynx major associationZenker’s ( diagnosed by barium swallow)
Ejection click major associationAortic/pulmonic stenosis