Step 1 - Rapid Review Associations 1

ruhland1's version from 2015-06-22 21:03


Question Answer
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly, periportal congestionBudd·Chiari syndrome (posthepatic venous thrombosis)
Achilles tendon xanthoma Familial hypercholesterolemia
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DICWaterhouse·Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemia)
Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible jointsMarfan's syndrome (fibrillin defect)
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight lossPott's disease (vertebral tuberculosis)
Big toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape Babinski's sign (UMN lesion)
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitisSarcoidosis (noncaseating granulomas)
Blue scleraOsteogenesis imperfecta (collagen defect T1)
Bluish line on gingivaBurton's (lead poisoning)
Bone pain, needed to get new hat, arthritisPaget's disease of bone (↑ osteoblastic AND osteoclastic activity)
Cafe-au-Iait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma)Neurofibromatosis type I
+ bilateral acoustic neuromasneurofibromatosis type II)

Section 2

Question Answer
Calf pseudohypertrophyMuscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne's)
"Cherry-red spot" on macula Tay-Sachs (ganglioside accumulation) or Niemann-Pick (lysosomal storage disease)
Chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI Dressler's syndrome (autoimmune-mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis)
Child uses arms to stand up from squat Gowers' sign (Duchenne muscular dystrophy: X-linked recessive deleted dystrophin gene)
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spreads to body "Slapped cheeks" (erythema infectiosum/fifth disease: parvovirus B19)
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration Huntington's disease (autosomal-dominant CAG repeat expansion)
Cold intolerance Hypothyroidism

Section a

Question Answer
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diploplia Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (damage to MlF; bilateral [multiple sclerosis], unilateral [stroke))
Continuous "machinery" heart murmurPDA (close with Indomethacin; open with misoprostol) - --- - alprostadil PGE1 for ToGV to keep PDA open
Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue depositionMyxedema (hypothyroidism, Graves' disease)
Dark purple skin/mouth nodulesHHV- 8 Kaposi's sarcoma (usually AIDS gay)
Deep, labored breathingKussmaul breathing (diabebc ketoacidosis) to push out ketones
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea Pellagra (niacin(vitamin B3) deficiency)
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathyWet beriberi (thiamine vitamm B1 deficiency)
Dog or cat bite resulting in infectionPasteurella multocida
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritisSjogren's syndrome (autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands) Anti-RO/LA
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia Plummer-Vinson syndrome (may progress to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma)

Section 3

Question Answer
Elastic skin, hypermobility of jointsEhlers·Danlos syndrome (5 collagen defect)
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular nodeVirchow's node (abdominal metastasis)
Erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cellsSezary syndrome (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) or mycosis fungoides
Facial muscle spasm upon tappingChvostek's sign (hypocalcemia)
Fat. female, forty, and fertile Acute cholecystitis (bile duct blockage)
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, Coplik spotsMeasles (Morbillivirus)
Fever. night sweats, weight lossB symptoms (lymphoma) if + back pain then Vertebral TB

Section b

Question Answer
Green-yellow rings around peripheral corneaKayser-Fleischer rings (copper accumulation from Wilson's disease)
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts Alport's syndrome (collagen mutation)
HypertenSion, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosisConn's syndrome (1 0 hyperaldosteronism)
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia"Blue bloater" (chronic bronchitis: hyperplasia of mucous cells)
Indurated, ulcerated genital lesion (nonpainful)Chancre (1 " syphilis: Treponema pallidum)
Infant with hypoglycemlia, failure to thrive and hepatomegaly Cori's disease (debranching enzyme deficiency)
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet and structural heart defectEdwards' syndrome (trisomy 18)
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever Charcot's triad 2 (ascending cholangitis)

Section 4

Question Answer
Keratin pearls on a skin lesion Squamous cell carcinoma
Large rash with bull's-eye appearanceErythema chronicum migrans from tick bite (Lyme disease: Borrelia)
lucid interval after traumatic brain injury Epidural hematoma
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells Bruton's disease (X-linked agammaglobulinemia)
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/supernumerary teethGardner's syndrome (genetic disorder, predisposes to colon cancer)
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritisWegener's and Goodpasture's syndromes (hemoptysis and glomerular disease)
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birthErb-Duchenne palsy (superior trunk [C5-(6) brachial plexus injury: -waiter's tip hand
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intoleranceSheehan’s syndrome (pituitary infarction)

Section c

Question Answer
Nystagmus, intention tremor scanning speechCharcot’s triad 1 (Multiple sclerosis)
Oscillating slow/fast breathingCheyne-stokes respirations (central apnea in CHF or ↑ICP)
Painful blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemiaCold agluttinin (IgM) diseases (autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis)
Painful, pale cold finger/toesRaynauds syndrome (vasospasm in extremities)
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and solesOsler’s nodes (infective endocarditis)
Painless jaundiceCancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)Henoch-Schonlein purpura (IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kidneys)
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumorsWermer’s syndrome (MEN 1)

Section 5

Question Answer
certain complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation“Pink Puffer” (emphysema, centroacinar(smoking), panacinar (alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency)
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalancesFanconi’s syndrome (proximal tubular reabsorption defect)
Positive anterior “drawer sign”anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
Ptosis, Miosis, anhidrosisHorner’s syndrome (sympathetic chain lesion)
Pupil accommodates but doesn't’ reactArgyll Robertson pupil (Neurosyphilis)
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/Upper Resp infection)Guillan-Barre syndrome (autoimmune acute inflammatory DEMYLINATING polyneuropathy) LE= ab presyn Ca
MG= ab at post syn, edro +
Rash on palms and solesSecondary syphilis, Rocky mountain spotted fever, Coxsackie virus A infection

Section d

Question Answer
Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgEJob’s syndrome (hyper-IgE syndrome: neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality)
Red “currant jelly” sputumKlebsiella pneumoniae
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areolaPaget’s disease of the breast (represents underlying neoplasm)
Red urine in the morningParoxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangionblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytomavon Hippel-Lindau disease (dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instabilityParkinson’s disease (nigrostriatal dopamine depletion)
Retinal hemorrhage with pale centersRoth’s spots (bacterial endocarditis)
Severe jaundice in neonateCrigler-Najjar syndrome (congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

Section 6

Question Answer
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tendernessMcBurney’s sign (appendicitis)
Single palm creaseSimian crease (Down syndrome)
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasisKartagener’s syndrome (dynein defect affecting cilia)
Skin hyperpigmentationAddison’s disease (primary adrenocortical insufficiency of autoimmune or infectious etiology) MOA= up ACTH pathway so up Melanin Stim hormone precursor.
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boysBecker’s muscular dystrophy (X-linked, defective dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne’s)
Small, irregular red spots on buccal/lingual mucosa with blue-white centersKoplik spots (measles)
Small, nontender, erythematous lesions on palms/solesJaneway lesions (infective endocarditis) vs Osler= palp/tender
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitalsCondylomatat lata (secondary syphilis) vs Con. Accumalata = HPV

Section e

Question Answer
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernailsBacterial endocarditis
Strawberry tongue, coronary a. aneur (MC reason in kids)Scarlet fever, Kawasaki disease, Toxic Shock syndrome
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease horseshoe kidney Turner's syndrome (XO, short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema)
Sudden swollen/painful big toe joint, tophiGout/podagra (hyperuricemia)
Swollen gums, mucous bleeding, poor wound healing, spots on skinScurvy (vitamin C deficiency: can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis)
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints Osteoarthritis (osteophytes on PIP [Bouchard's nodes}, DIP [Heberden's nodes))
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)Aortic valve stenosis

Section 7

Question Answer
Thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal tumorsSipple's syndrome (MEN 2A)
Ulcerated genital lesion with exudate (painful)Chancroid (Hoemophilus DOCRY! )
Unilateral facial droopingBell's palsy (LMN CN VII palsy)
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a maleReiter's syndrome (reactive arthritis associated with HlA-B27) cant see cant pee cant climb a tree
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain) Hemangioma (benign, but associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome)
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis Shwartzman reaction (following second exposure to endotoxin)
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerationsMallory-Weiss syndrome (akoholics and eating disorders)
"Waxy" casts with very low urine flow Chronic end-stage renal disease
WBC casts in urineAcute pyelonephritis
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever adenopathy PAS+ and Foamy macrophages in Peyer patchesWhipple's disease (Tropheryma whippelii )
''Worst headache of my life" Berry aneurysm (associated with adult polycystic Kidney disease)

Section 8 *******************************************!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Question Answer
Anticentromere antibodiesScleroderma (CREST)
Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodiesPemphigus vulgaris (blistering)
Anti-glomerular basement membraneGoodpasture's syndrome (glomerulonephritis and lung hemorrhage)
Antihistone antibodies Drug-induced SLE
Anti-lgG antibodies Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)
Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) primary biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)Vasculitis (Wegener's, microscopic polyangiitis, glomerulonephritis)
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Antiplatelet antibodies Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (lTP) (bleeding diathesis)
Anti-topoisomerase antibodies Diffuse systemic scleroderma
Anti-transglutaminase/antigliadin antibodiesCeliac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)

Section 9

Question Answer
Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blastsAuer rods (acute myelogenous leukemia: especially the promyelocytic type (M3 subtype in downs, up HSN in tx due to rod release))
Bamboo spine" on x-ray Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)
Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)
Basophilic stippling of RBCs Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia
Bloody tap on LP(XANTHOCHROMIA)Subarachnoid hemorrhage
"Boot-shaped" heart on x-rayTetralogy of Fallot, RVH
Long Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules, anerobeActinomyces israelii (CLINDAMYCIN above diaphragm METRO below)
Bronchogenic apical lung tumor Pancoast's tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Homer's syndrome)
“brown” tumor of boneHemorrhage (hemosiderin) causes brown color of osteolytic cysts - Due to: 1. Hyperparathyroidism 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen's disease of bone) ... Othe Von Reck = NF-1
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophyChagas’ disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)
Cellular crescents in Bowman's capsule Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis