lizamariereagan's version from 2015-05-05 20:50


Question Answer
If ultrasound should level of development consistent with mothers reported dates and no anatomic abnormalities what do you do ?amniocentesis
What synthesizes AFP?fetal liver, GI tract and yolk sac (early gestation only)
When do maternal serum AFP levels increase?with increased gestational age
What is the most common cause of increased AFPdating error


Question Answer
How is a dating error confirmedfetal ultrasound
What do estriol levels reflect placental and fetal function
What does a decreased estriol level mean?placental insufficiency
What does an increased hCG mean?multiple gestation, hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma


Oncogenic microbes
Question Answer
EBVburkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, CNS lymphoma (in immune compromised patients)
HBV, HCVhepatocellular carcinoma
HHV-8Kaposi sarcoma, body cavity fluid B-cell lymphoma
HPVcervical and penil/anal carcinoma (16, 18), head and neck or throat cancer


Question Answer
H pylorigastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma
HTLV-1adult t cell leukemia/lymphoma
Liver fluke (clonorchis sinensis)cholangiocarcinoma
Schistomsoma haematobiumbladder cancer (squamous cell)


Carcinogens organ and impact
Question Answer
Aflatoxins (aspergillus)liver/hepatocellular carcinoma
Alkylating agentsblood/leukemia and lymphoma
Aromatic amines (eg benzidine, 2-naphthylamine)bladder/transitional cell carcinoma
Arsenicliver,lung and skin/ angiosarcoma, lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma


Question Answer
Asbestoslung/bronchogenic carcinoma > mesothelioma
Carbon tetrachlorideliver / centrilobular necrosis, fatty change
Cigarette smokebladder/transitional cell carcinoma, esophagus/squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, kidney/renal cell carcinoma, larynx/squamous cell carcinoma, lung/squamous cell and small cell carcinoma, pancreas /pancreatic adenocarcinoma
Ethanolesophagus/squamous cell carcinoma, liver/hepatocellular carcinoma
Ionizing radiationthyroid/papillary thyroid carcinoma


Question Answer
Nitrosamines (smoked foods)stomach/gastric cancer
Radonlung /lung cancer- second leading cause after cig smoke
Vinyl chloridliver/angiosarcoma
How do individual chemical carcinogens enter the body ? in the inactive state as pro carcinogens – they are converted to active state by cytochrome p450 oxidase system
What does individual susceptibility to chemical carcinogens depend onbased on the activity of these P450 enzymes, which is genetically determined


Question Answer
Paraneoplastic syndromes1
What does small cell lung cancer and intracranial neoplasms secrete and its effect?ectopic vasopressin produced causing SIADH secretion
What does squamous cell lung carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and breast cancer secrete and its effect?PTHrP leading to hypercalcemia
What does small cell lung cancer, breast, ovarian and uterine cancer secrete and its effect?anti-Yo, anti-P/Q and anti-Hu ab leading to subacute cerebellar degeneration
What does renal cell carcinoma, thymoma, hemangioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, leiomyoma, pheochromocytoma secrete and its effect?erythropoietin leading to polycythemia


Question Answer
What does acetylcholine receptor ab secrete and its effect?thymoma leading to myasthenia gravis
What does small cell lung lung carcinoma secrete and its effect?antibodies against presynaptic calcium channels at NMJ leading to lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome (muscle weakness)
What does small cell lung carcinoma and pancreatic cancer secrete and its effect?ACTH/CTRH leading to cushing syndrome
What does renal cell cancer secrete and its effect?ectopic EPO production leading to erythrocytosis
What does Hodgkin lymphoma, and some non-hodgkin lymphomas secrete and its effect?1,25-(OH)2 D3 (calcitriol) leading to hypercalcemia


Question Answer
When do you psammomma bodies?papillary carcinoma of thyroid, serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary, meningioma, malignant mesothelioma (PSMM)
Top 3 Incidence of cancer in maleprostate, lung, colon rectum
Top 3 incidence of cancer in femalebreast, lung, colon/rectum
Top 3 mortality in malelung, prostate, colon/rectum
Top 3 mortality in femalelung, breast, colon/rectum


Question Answer
If there are mets to the brain, what is a list in decreasing order of where the primary tumorlung > breast > genitourinary > osteosarcoma > melanoma > GI
If there are mets to the liver, what is a list in decreasing order of where the primary tumor iscolon >> stomach > pancreas
If there are mets to the bone, what is a list in decreasing order of where the primary tumor isprostate, breast > lung> thyroid
What are the most common sites of mets after lymph nodes?liver and lung