Step 1 - Micro key words

bilepafi's version from 2015-06-10 19:14


Bact key words
Question Answer
Silver StainPseudomonas, Legionella, Leptospira, H. pylori, and fungi such as Pneumocystis and Candida are stained with silver
Actinomyces spp.Sulfur granules in draining sinuses, Anaerobic, Filamentous
Bacillus anthracisSheep, goat, goat hair, Fur, spore, Bioterror, Malignant pustule, Wool-sorters' disease
Bacillus cereusRice, preformed toxin, Heat-stable toxin-vomiting, Heat·labile toxin-diarrhea
Bacteroides fragilisFoul smelling, Mixed infection, Abscess
Bordetella pertussisBordet-Gengou agar, Lymphotoxin(lymphoid leukocytosis), Whooping Cough, DPT vaccine
Borrelia burgdorferiDeer tick, High Grass, lyme disease, White tail deer resevoir or spirochete, Erythema chronicum migrans, Disabling arthritis, Bilateral bells palsy
Brucella SppUndulant fever, Unpasteurized milk and cheese, Intracellular growth, goats and sheep
Campylobacter JejuniBloody diarrhea, Undercooked poultry, Puppies, Thin curved gram -, Assoc with guillain barre syndrome
Chlamydia trachomatisSexually transmitted disease, UTI, PID, lymphogranuloma venereum, Trachoma, Iodine stain, Intracellular inclusion bodies, Elementary bodies (infective particle), Reticulate bodies
Chlamydia psittaciBirds, Parrots
Clostridium perfringensBoxcar shaped, double zone of hemolysis, Lecithinase, Toxins, gas gangrene(myonecrosis), diarrhea, Anaerobe
Clostridium difficileSpores, Pseudomembranous colitis, Toxin A+B Antibiotic associated
Clostridium botulinumBotulism, Floppy baby, Honey (spores; infant), Food-borne (adults; preformed toxin), A-B toxin, Anaerobe
Clostridium tetaniA-B toxin, anaerobe, Lockjaw, DPT, Twitching spasms, Sardonic grin, No protective antibodies
Corynebacterium diphtherlaePseudomembrane, DPT, A-B toxin, Schick test, Toxic myocarditis (cause of death)
Enterococci spp.Entero-feces-gut bug, VRE
Escherichia coliDiarrhea, Neonatal meningitis, EIEC, EHEC, ETEC, EAEC, EPEC, Lactose positive, O157:H7, UTI, Acute cholecystitis, diverticulitis, appendicitis,Septic shock in hospital
Francisella tularensisIntracellular, Rabbit, Ulcer, Tularemia
Haemophilus spp.X and V factors, Hib, Capsule, Meningitis uncommon due to vaccine, Epiglottitis, otitis media, sinusitis
Helicobacter pyloriGastric or duodenal ulcer, Urease, Urease breath test, Stool antigen test (active versus inactive disease), Stomach cancer (adenocarcinoma, lymphoma)
Klebsiella pneumoniaeCurrant jelly (blood) sputum, Alcoholic, Aspiration pneumonia, Capsule
Legionella pneumoprlliaAir conditioning, warm mist (rain forest), Shower and other lukewarm water sources, Charcoal yeast agar (BYCE agar), Atypical pneumonia, Urine antigen test
Listeria sppMeningitis, Intracellular growth, Baby, cold enrichment, Milk products, Motility, Undercooked meat, soft cheese
Mycoplasma sppWalking pneumonia, No cell wall, Atypical pneumonia in crowded conditions, Association w/guillain barre, Cold agglutinins
Neisseria meningitidisGram-negative diplococci in CSF, Meningitis, Lipooligosaccharide, Endotoxin, SeptIc shock, Petechiae, purpura, Waterhouse-Fridenchsen syndrome
Neisseria gonorrhoeaeGram-negative diplococci, Urethritis, Sexually transmitted disease, Thayer-Martin medium, Chocolate agar
Mycobacterium LepraeNerve damage, anesthetic skin lesion, Lepromatous leprosy-T H2, Tuberculoid leprosy-T Hl
Mycobacterium TBMantoux reaction, PPD, ACid-fast, Granuloma, Caseation, Opportunistic disease, Ghon complexes (primary disease), Intestinal tuberculosis (swallowed, organisms in primary lung disease) Isoniazid
Proteus mirabilisUrinary tract infection, Swarmer, Urease, Alkaline urine pH, Ammonia smell
Pseudomonas AeruginosaNosocomial infection, CF, OpportunistIc, Green pigment in sputum, FrUity smell, Burn patient, Hot tub folliculitiS, Malignant external otitis in diabetic, Osteomyelitis in punctured rubber foot wear
Rickettsia sppTick, Southeastern Atlantic and south central states, Palmar petechia, Weil-Felix reaction, Obligate intracellular growth
S. AureusGrapelike clusters, Coagulase, Catalase ,Toxins, TSST, MRSA, Pus, Impetigo
Staph epidermidisCatalase, Coagulase negative, Catheters, shunts, prosthetic devices
Salmonella Spp.Dairy foods, Motile, Animal reservoirs, Raw eggs and chicken, Nonlactose fermenter, Nonbloody diarrhea, Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease
Shigell spp.Watery, bloody diarrhea, Gram-negative bacillus, Lactose negative, No hydrogen sulfide, Shiga toxin
Strep pneumoGram-positive diplos, a Hemolysis, Capsule, P disk (Optochin) sensitive, Polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumonia, Meningitis, Otitis media, Sinusitis, Spontaneous peritonitis
Strep pyogenesB-hemolysis, streptolysin O and S, A disk (bactitracin) sensitive, Gram+ cocci chains, Necrotizing fasciitis, Pus, Erysipelas, scarlet fever, Rheumatic fever, post-strep glomerulonephritis
Treponema pallidumPainless ulcer, Palm and sole rash, FTA-ABS, Spirochete, Gummas, Unculturable, VDRL, RPR, STD
Vibrio choleraeComma (s) shapes, rice water, shellfish, A-B toxin
Yersina pestisPlague, fleas, rodent and other animal hosts, buboes
Quellung Reaction + Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Salmonella.


Virology trigger words
Question Answer
AdenovirusConjunctivitis, pharyngitis, hemorrhagic cystitis, Dense basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, Diarrhea in infant, appendicitis in kids, infectious genome, Icosahedral capsid with fibers, poorly chlorinated swimming pools
BunyaviruseCalifornia encephalitis viruses, Culex spp, mosquito, arbovirus, woods, la crosse virus, encephalitie, meningitis, hantavirus hemorrhagic, petechiae, ecchymosis, bleeding tissues, rodent feces and urine
ArenavirusesLymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, rodents, flu-like sx, slums, ribavirn, lassa fever, hemorrhagic, rodents
CoronavirusesCommon cold, SARS, Fecal-oral and respiratory spread
Herpes simplex virusenveloped, large, DNA, Cowdry type A inclusion bodies, vesicular lesions, neurotropic, Tzanck smear (multinucleated squamous cells), stress induced recurrence, encephalitis, destruction of temporal lobe, blindness, neonatal HSV
CytomegalovirusLarge owl’s eye nuclear inclusion body, Hypertrophied (megalo) cells, Opportunistic disease, Mononucleosis-like syndrome, blindness, diarrhea, pancreatitis in AIDS, Congenital CMV (intracerebral calcification), Microcephaly
Epstein barr virusMononucleosis, fatigue, pharyngitis, heterophile antibody, atypical lymphocyes, rash, monospot test, ampicilling induced rash, B-cell, lymphocytosis, Burkitt lymphoma
Varicella-zoster virusCrops of vesicular lesions, all stages of lesion at once, vesicles, latency, Multinucleated giant cells (synctia), Cowdry type A nuclear inclusion bodies, Neurotropic, Thymidine kinase, shingles, dermatome distribution of vesicles, Chickenpox (association with Reye syndrome)
Hepatitis AFecal-oral spread, Acute-sudden onset hepatitis, Day-care center, Food-borne, shellfish, Protective antibodies, picornavirus
Hepatitis EFecal-oral spread, Acute, sudden-onset hepatitis, Pregnant women, Hepeviridae
Hepatitis BSerum hepatitis, chronic, contaminated blood and semen and mother’s milk, Dane particle, insidious onset HBsAg, primary hepatocellular carcinoma, hepadnavirus
Hepatitis CNon-A, Non-B hepatitis, chronic, flavivirus, Posttransfusion hepatitis, No protective antibodies, Hepatocellular carcinoma
Hepatitis DFulminant hepatitis, HBV helper virus
HIVCytolytic to CD4, Chemokine coreceptor, opportunistic diseases (PCP, Kaposi, Candid, CMV retinitis, pneumocystis), Reverse transcriptase
HTLVLeukemia, flower cell, CD4T cell, reverse transcriptase
Parainfluenza viruseCroup, barking seal, pneumonia, synctia, paramyxovirus
MeaslesKoplik spots (blue-gray spots in mouth, precede rash), 3Cs (cough, coryza, ?), photophobia, high fever, rash, paramyxovirus
MumpsParotitis, chipmunk cheeks, orchitis, pancreatitis and aseptic meningitis or encephalitis (5%), paramyxovirus
NorovirusNorwalk virus, outbreaks of diarrheal disease, Nausea, watery diarrhea and vomiting, schools, cruise ships
OrthomyxovirusInfluenza, flu, segmented genome→reassortment, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, Antigenic drift, shift
PapillomavirusWarts, koilocytes, CIN, cervical cancer, STD
PolyomavirusesJC, demyelination, abnormal oligodendrocytes, opportunistic disease, PML
Parvovirus B19Fifth disease, slapped cheeks, Lacy pattern rash, aplastic anemia, sickle crisis, spontaneous abortions
Coxsackie and echovirusFecal-oral, Vesicular lesions; hand, foot, and mouth, B for body, Meningitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, picornavirus
PoliovirusAssymetric flaccid paralysis, Major and minor disease, Fecal-oral, post polio syndrome, picornavirus
RhinovirusRunny nose, many serotypes, heat and pH labile, picornavirus
PoxviruseLarge, brick-shaped virus, replicates in cytoplasm, vesicular lesion, zoonosis, molluscum contagiosum (skin-colored papules), smallpox: synchronized crop of vesicular lesions (smallpox), vaccine
PrionsSpongiform encephalopathy, CJD, vCJD, beef, no inflammation, presenile dementia, shakes, resistant to inactivation, mad cow
RabiesRaccoon, skunk bite, Bats (aerosol), Hydrophobia, Coma, Salivation, Negri bodies, Bullet-shaped virion, Rhabdovirus,
RotavirusWatery (secretory) diarrhea in young child, Oral vaccine (risk for intussusception), Double capsid and double stranded segmented RNA (remember double double)
RubellaRash, vaccine, congenital disease, arthritis, teratogen, cataracts, togavirus
TogavirusArbovirus, encephalitis viruses: mosquito, seasonal encephalitis, swamp Hemorrhagic viruses: blood everywhere, petechiae
FlavivirusArbovirus, Encephalitis viruses: mosquito, seasonal encephalitis, swamp, Hemorrhagic viruses: blood everywhere, petechiae


Mycology Trigger words
Question Answer
Aspergillus sppFungus ball, Septate branching hyphae, Fruiting bodies, Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (allergic alveoitis), Angioinvasive, Malt(grain) workers, Allergic bronchopulmonary
Black piedraBlack nodules along hair shaft, ascospores
White piedraSleeve or collar around the hair shaft, Found on mustcahe, beard and scalp
Blastomyces dermatitdisMississippi river valley, rotting wood (beaver dams), broad based budding yeast, Healthy and immunocompromised, Granuloma
Candida albicansWhite, curd-like, adhesive plaques that bleed when removed for culture, Cobblestones, Prolonged use of antibiotics, Immunocompromised: AIDs, diabetic people, transplant recipients, chemotherapy patients, infants, Vaginal yeast, Yeasts and pseudohyphae(sign of infection), thrush
ChromoblastomycosisDematiaceous (brown or black, melanin-producting) sclerotic bodies, skin disease, Cauliflower-like verrucous (warty) nodules
Eumycotic mycetomaDermatiaceous fungus, many draining sinus tracts, “grains” of microcolonies in the deep layer of skin, Localized infection.
Coccidiodes immitisSan Joaquin River Valley, American SW deserts, Inhale arthrospores in dust, spherules with endospores, Skin test for antigen exposure,
Cryptococcus neoformans Pigeon droppings, Capsule, India ink preparations, capsular antigens, AIDS patients, Meningitis in immunocompromised host, Capsule that houses the round yeast
Histoplasma capsulatumOhio and Mississippi River valleys, Lung and spleen, Granulomas, Yeast inside macrophages, Bird and bat droppings (spelunker), “cincinnati spleen”
Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii) Most common initial AIDS-defining disease, Diffuse interstitial pneumonia, Gomori silver stain, AIDS patient, intravenous drug abuser, Fluffy, foamy alveolar exudate, Cup-shaped (flying saucer), Ground-glass appearance on radiograph, Organisms in bronchoalveolar lavage
Pityriasis versicolorHypopigmented/hyperpigmented patches, Spaghetti and meatballs KOH preparation, seborrheic dermatitis; cradle cap in newborn
Rhizopus and Mucor sppAcidotic diabetic, Paranasal sinus and orbit involvement, Frontal lobe abscess in diabetic ketoacitosis, Coenocytic (aseptate) hyphae, Black nasal discharge, Bread mold
Sporothrix schenckiiRoses, thorn prick, sphagnum moss, splinter, Gardener, Lymphocutaneous nodules
TineaInfect stratum corneum; KOH preparation, Ring worm, Circular scaling lesion with central clearing and hair loss, discoloring, crumbling nails, azoles


Parasitology Trigger Words
Question Answer
Schistosoma sppSnails, Injectoin, Fluke, Mansoni (lateral spine on egg), Haematobiume(nipple on egg; squamous bladder cancer)
Taenia soliumUndercooked pig (intermediate host), Tapeworm, Cysticercosis (human intermediate host)
Echinococcus granulosus (dog tapeworm)dog (definitive host), Hydatid cyst (human intermediate host), Tapeworm
Diphyllobothrium latum (fish tapeworm)Raw fish, tapeworm, Vitamin B12 deficiency
Plasmodium spp Malaria, Paroxysms of fever and chills correspond with RBC hemolysis, Falciparum(multiple ring forms), Cyclic disease, Anopheles spp. Female mosquito, Falciparum: blackwater fever, thick smears
Giardia spp Old man looking over his shoulder (troph), Hikers, Contaminated creek water (beavers and bears), Foul-smelling diarrhea, IgA deficiency, stool antigen test
Cryptosporidium sppImmune suppression, water supply contaminant, partially acid fast oocyst, AIDS diarrhea
Entamoeba histolyticaAmebic dysentary, Cyst with one to four nuclei, intracellular RBCs, Hepatic abscess, Flask-shaped ulcers in cecum
Trichomonas sppSTD, Hanging drop test for motility, Flagella
Toxoplasma sppCats and cat litter, TORCHS, Mononucleosis like syndrome, Space occupying lesion brain in AIDS,
Leishmania sppSandflies, soldiers returning from persian gulf, Blackening of skin, Trip to Asia or s. America
Trypanosoma bruceiTsetse fly, sleeping sickness, trip to asia or south america, death by starvatio, winterbottom sign
Trypnsoma cruziChagas disease, reduviid bug, Mega organs (eg. Colon), Romana sign, acquired achalasia, Hirschsprung disease, Myocarditis leading to heart failure
Enterobius vermicularisPinworm, Scotch tape test, anal itching, appendicitiis, urethritis in girls, no eosinophilia
Ascaris lumbricoidesRoundworm, Large, pearl white worm, Adults: intestinal obstruction, No eosinophilia except in lung transmigration phase
Trichinella spiralisHunter, undercooked pig or game meat, splinter hemorrhages, facial edema and myalgia, eosinophila, muscle biopsy
Necator americanusHookworm, Pneumonitis, Iron deficiency anemia
Strongyloides stercoralisThreadworm, Pneumonitis, Dermatitis, Eosinophilia, Autoinfection life cycle, Larva (NOT EGGS) in stool