Step 1 - Micro bug list 3

denniskwinn's version from 2015-04-25 16:07


Question Answer
Adenovirus Appendicitis (adenovirus) disease featurespharyngitis, atypical pneumonia, acute respiratory disease (military recruits), conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis
Adenovirus Appendicitis (adenovirus) identificationNonenveloped, dsDNA genome; midsize, dense intranuclear inclusion body in infected cells
Adenovirus Appendicitis (adenovirus) target tissueResp tract and eyes
Adenovirus Appendicitis (adenovirus) transmissionAerosols, fecal-oral, close contact, hand to eye
Adenovirus Appendicitis (adenovirus) prevention/treatmentsupportive, no antiviral
Hepatitis B virus (HepDNAvirus) disease featuresAcute hep, arthritis, rash, jaundice. Chronic Hep in 15-20%, cirrhosis, may progress to primary hepatocellular carcinoma
Hepatitis B virus (HepDNAvirus) identificationEnveloped, partially double stranded circular dna genome, small - serology: IgM for core antigen (HBcAg)=recent infection, HBsAg= acute or chronic infection, HBeAG= virus shedding
Hepatitis B virus (HepDNAvirus) target tissueHepatocytes
Hepatitis B virus (HepDNAvirus) transmissionBody fluids via sexual contact, transfusion, needle stick, breastfeeding
Hepatitis B virus (HepDNAvirus) prevention/treatmentHbsAg subunit vaccine for children and at risk groups, Lamivudine, tenofovir, entecavir, metricitabine, adefovir, dipivoxil
Cytomegalovirus (Herpes virus) disease featuresMild monnucleosis, neonatal disease, pneumonia, hepatitis, retinitis (AIDs and transplant recipients)
Cytomegalovirus (Herpes virus) identificationenveloped dsDNA, large, Owl’s eye nulear inclusions in infected cells
Cytomegalovirus (Herpes virus) target tissueOral epithelium; latency in lymphocytes, CNS, eyes, salivary glands, GI tract
Cytomegalovirus (Herpes virus) transmissionBody fluids, organ transplants, transplacental
Cytomegalovirus (Herpes virus) prevention/treatmentScreening of blood and transplants, Valganciclovir, ganciclovir, foscarnet
Epstein-Barr Virus (Herpes virus) disease featuresInfectious mononucleosis (adolescents), Hairy oral leukoplakia (AIDS), Assoc w/Burkitt’s lymphoma
Epstein-Barr Virus (Herpes virus) identificationEnveloped dsDNA, Downey cells(atypical T cells), heterophile antibody (monospot test), serology for antiviral antigens
Epstein-Barr Virus (Herpes virus) target tissueB cells
Epstein-Barr Virus (Herpes virus) transmissionSalive
Epstein-Barr Virus (Herpes virus) prevention/treatmentNo antiviral
HSV types 1 and 2 disease featuresOral herpes (fever, blisters, cold sores, usually HSV1), Genital herpes: Painful ulcers (usually HSV2), Encephalitis, meningitis, keratoconjunctivitis, neonatal disease
HSV types 1 and 2 identificationEnveloped dsDNA, Synctia and cowdry type A nuclear inclusion bodies, syncytia, Tzanck smear, PCR for genome
HSV types 1 and 2 target tissueMucoepithelium of skin, oropharynx, mouth, genitalia, eyes, elsewhere latency in neurons
HSV types 1 and 2 transmissionMixing and matching of mucous membranes via kissing, sharing utensils, sexual contact, passage through birth canal
HSV types 1 and 2 prevention/treatmentAcyclovir, valacyclovir, famciclovir, penciclovir
HHV types 6 and 8 disease featuresRoseola (HHV-6): high fever and rash in children, Kaposi sarcoma(HHV-8) mostly in aids patients
HHV types 6 and 8 identificationenveloped dsDNA, PCR for viral DNa
HHV types 6 and 8 target tissueLymphocytes
HHV types 6 and 8 transmissionResp droplets, saliva
HHV types 6 and 8 prevention/treatmentNo antiviral
Varicella-Zoster virus (herpes virus) disease featuresChickenpox primary infection, Shingles recurrent infection along single dermatome
Varicella-Zoster virus (herpes virus) identificationenveloped dsDNA, synctia and cowdry type A nuclear inclusion bodies in smears of infected cells, immunofluorescence, ELISA, PCR
Varicella-Zoster virus (herpes virus) target tissueSkin and liver, latency in neurons
Varicella-Zoster virus (herpes virus) transmissionResp droplets
Varicella-Zoster virus (herpes virus) prevention/treatmentAttenuated live vaccine (VZIG), famciclovir, valavcyclovir, acyclovir
Human papillomaviruse disease featuresSkin warts (types 1-4), Condylomata acuminata (types 6,11), Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (16,18)
Human papillomaviruse identificationNonenveloped dsDNA, small, Koilocytotic cells (vacuoles and enlarged nuclei) on Papanicolaou smear in CIN; PCR for viral DNA
Human papillomaviruse target tissueSkin and epithelial inactivation of host growth supressors p53 and RB by early viral proteins E6 and E7
Human papillomaviruse transmissionDirect contact with lesions
Human papillomaviruse prevention/treatmentInterferon alpha, nonsurgical removal of warts, Vaccine
JC virus (polyoma virus) disease featuresProgressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with demyelination in CNS (pregnant women and those with poor T cell immunity)
JC virus (polyoma virus) identificationNonenveloped dsDNA
JC virus (polyoma virus) target tissueRespiratory tract, kidney; reactivation of latent infection and spread to CNS
JC virus (polyoma virus) transmissionResp droplets
JC virus (polyoma virus) prevention/treatmentNo antiviral
Parvovirus B19 disease featuresErythema infectiosum (fifth disease): slapped cheek rash, Aplastic crisis in sickle cell diseases, Polyarthritis
Parvovirus B19 identificationNonenveloped ssDNA genome, small
Parvovirus B19 target tissueErythroid precursor cells
Parvovirus B19 transmissionresp droplets, transplacental
Parvovirus B19 prevention/treatmentNo antiviral
Poxviruses disease featuresSmallpox, vaccinia, molluscum contagiosum
Poxviruses identificationLarge, enveloped complex brick-shaped dsDNA
Poxviruses target tissueskin and organs
Poxviruses transmissionresp droplets and contact
Poxviruses prevention/treatmentlive vaccine for smallpox and quarantine


Question Answer
RNA viruses identification
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Arenavirus) disease featuresFebrile flu like illness, meningitis in immune compromised
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Arenavirus) identificationEnveloped, segmented (-) ssRNA, midsize
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Arenavirus) target tissueLungs, CNS
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Arenavirus) transmissionAerosols, formites, or food contaminated by infected rodents urine or feces
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Arenavirus) prevention/treatmentribavirin, supportive measures
Lassa fever virus (Arenavirus) disease featuresHemorrhagic fever (similar to ebola)
Lassa fever virus (Arenavirus) identificationEnveloped, segmented (-) ssRNA, midsize
Lassa fever virus (Arenavirus) target tissueBlood vessels and numerous organs
Lassa fever virus (Arenavirus) transmissionAerosols, formites or food contaminated by vermin
Lassa fever virus (Arenavirus) prevention/treatmentRibavirin and supportive measures
La Crosse and california encephalitis viruses (Bunya virus) disease featuresFlu-like syndrome, encephalitis
La Crosse and california encephalitis viruses (Bunya virus) identificationEnveloped segmented (-) ssRNA genome, midsize
La Crosse and california encephalitis viruses (Bunya virus) target tissueCNS
La Crosse and california encephalitis viruses (Bunya virus) transmissionBite of culex spp mosquito
La Crosse and california encephalitis viruses (Bunya virus) prevention/treatmentNo antiviral
Hantavirus (bunyavirus) disease featuresPulmonary syndrome: flu-like prodrome, interstitial pulmonary edema, respiratory failure
Hantavirus (bunyavirus) identificationEnveloped segmented (-) ssRNA genome, midsize
Hantavirus (bunyavirus) target tissueLungs
Hantavirus (bunyavirus) transmissionInhalation of aerosols of infected rodent urine or feces
Hantavirus (bunyavirus) prevention/treatmentNo antiviral
Hepatitis E (Calcivirus) disease featuresabrupt onset similar to hep A but more severe, especially in pregnant women, not common in the US
Hepatitis E (Calcivirus) identificationNonenveloped small (+) ssRNA genome
Hepatitis E (Calcivirus) target tissueLiver
Hepatitis E (Calcivirus) transmissionFecal-oral
Hepatitis E (Calcivirus) prevention/treatmentNo antiviral
Norwalk Virus (calcivirus) disease featuresGastroenteritis: watery diarrhea with nausea and vomiting
Norwalk Virus (calcivirus) identificationNonenveloped small (+) ssRNA, detection of virions in stools
Norwalk Virus (calcivirus) target tissueGI tract
Norwalk Virus (calcivirus) transmissionFecal-oral
Norwalk Virus (calcivirus) prevention/treatmentBismuth salicylate to reduce symptoms, fluids
Coronavirus disease featuresCommon cold: 15% of cases, mostly in infants and children
Coronavirus identificationEnveloped (+) ssRNA, large
Coronavirus target tissueUpper and Lower respiratory tract
Coronavirus transmissionResp droplets
Coronavirus prevention/treatmentNo antiviral
SARS (corona virus) disease featuresSevere acute respiratory syndrome
SARS (corona virus) identificationEnveloped (+) ssRNA genome, large
SARS (corona virus) target tissueLung
SARS (corona virus) transmissionAerosols
SARS (corona virus) prevention/treatmentNo antiviral
Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filo viruse) disease featuresAfrican hemorrhagic fever; initial flu-like symptoms, widespread hemorrhage, hypovolemic shock (often rapidly fatal)
Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filo viruse) identificationEnveloped (-) ssRNA genome, midsize
Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filo viruse) target tissueNumerous organs
Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filo viruse) transmissionZoonotic (monkeys are natural hosts); contact with body fluids
Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filo viruse) prevention/treatmentNo antiviral
Hepatitis C (Flavi virus) disease featuresAcute: gradual onset, usually subclinical. . Chronic: (common) - predisposes to primary hepatocellular cancer
Hepatitis C (Flavi virus) identificationEnveloped (+) ssRNA, liver genome small
Hepatitis C (Flavi virus) target tissueLiver Hepatitis C (Flavi virus) transmission: Body fluids via sexual contact transfusion, needle stick breastfeeding
Hepatitis C (Flavi virus) prevention/treatmentPegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin