Step 1 - Micro Bug list 1

denniskwinn's version from 2015-04-25 16:06


Question Answer
Actinomyces spp disease featuresAbscesses with draining Sinus tracts, especially In cervicofacial region, Mycetoma
Actinomyces spp identificationGm{+), filamentous ; anaerobic, Seen as macroscopic "sulfur" granules in clinical specimens
Actinomyces spp pathogenic factorsUnknown (normal colonizer of upper respiratory and GI tracts)
Actinomyces spp transmissionEndogenous spread, across mucosal barriers after trauma or dIsease
Actinomyces spp prevention/treatmentdebridement and penicillin


Question Answer
Bacillus anthracis disease featuresCutaneous: ulcerated lesions and septicemia, Pulmonary: often fatal,
Bacillus anthracis identificationGm{+) rod; sporeformer; nonmotile; aerobic Medusa-head colonies on blood agar
Bacillus anthracis pathogenic factorsExotoxin consisting of a protective factor, edema factor, and lethal factor; anti phagocytic polypeptide capsule
Bacillus anthracis transmissionSpores from animal products or SOil through skin or by inhalation
Bacillus anthracis prevention/treatmentAttenuated vaccine for at-risk groups, Penicillin, Clpronoxacin, doxycycline
Bacillus cereus disease featuresFood pOisoning: emetic disease (early vomiting); diarrheal disease( later onset) Traumatic eye Infections
Bacillus cereus identificationGm{+) rod; sporeformer; motile, Aerobic
Bacillus cereus pathogenic factors Heat-stable exotoxin (emetic disease); heat-labile exotoxin (diarrheal disease)
Bacillus cereus transmissionPreformed tOXin, In reheated rice (emetic form) ; spores in meat and vegetables
Bacillus cereus prevention/treatmentRefrigeration of foods, supportive therapy


Question Answer
Clostridium botulinum disease featuresClassic: weakness, bilateral descending paralysis, Infant form: Floppy baby syndrome, constipation, Wound form: similar to classic but longer onset
Clostridium botulinum identificationGm(+) rod; sporeformer; anaerobic
Clostridium botulinum pathogenic factorsHeat-resistant spores; A-B type toxin inhibits release of acetylcholine
Clostridium botulinum transmissionPreformed tOXin In canned foods (classic) ; spores, often In honey (infant)
Clostridium botulinum prevention/treatmentDiscard bulging cans of food, no honey for infants, Trivalent antitoxin IgG, Trivalent antitoxin, Respiratory support, PeniCillin (infant and wound)
Clostridium difficile disease featuresPseudomembranous colitis with bloody diarrhea: associated with antibiotic use
Clostridium difficile identificationGm(+) rod; sporeformer; anaerobic; ELISA detection of toxin in stool culture, antigen In stool
Clostridium difficile pathogenic factorsGrowth after antibiotic depletion of competing intestinal flora; enterotoxin A, (Fluid loss); cytotoxin, B (mucosal damage),
Clostridium difficile transmissionOpportUnistic Intestinal flora; nosocomial spread
Clostridium difficile prevention/treatmentCessation of causative antibiotiC, Metronidazole or Vancomycin


Question Answer
Clostridium perfringens disease featuresMyonecrosis (gas gangrene), Cellulitis, Food poisoning (watery diarrhea)
Clostridium perfringens identificationGm(+) large, boxcarshaped rod; sporeformer; aerotolerant anaerobe, Double zone of hemolysIs
Clostridium perfringens pathogenic factorsCytolytic alpha tOXin; heat-labile enterotoxin, (AUld loss) ; other toxins (increased vascular permeability, tissue necrosis)
Clostridium perfringens transmissionSpores In food and soil ; endogenous spread from GI tract to sterile sites
Clostridium perfringens prevention/treatmentProper cooking and refrigeration of foods, Wound cleaning and debridement. Penicillin
Clostridium tetani disease featuresTetanus: lockjaw, (trismus). spastic paralysis(opisthotonos) ,grinning expression(risus sardonicus)
Clostridium tetani identificationGm(+) small rod, (tennis racket), terminal spore; strict anaerobe
Clostridium tetani pathogenic factorsA-B type exotoxin (tetanospasmin) blocks release of inhibitory neurotransmitters (glycine, GABA)
Clostridium tetani transmissionSpores via cut or stab wound
Clostridium tetani prevention/treatmentToxoid vaccine (childhood DPT vaccine); booster every 10 years, antitoxin immunoglobulin to neutralize toxin - Penicillin


Question Answer
Corynebacterium diptheriae disease featuresRespiratory: pseudomembrane on throat ("bull neck"), sore throat, Cutaneous, Systemic toxemia
Corynebacterium diptheriae identificationGm(+) club-shaped rod, Black colonIes on tellurite agar (LoffIer medIum)
Corynebacterium diptheriae pathogenic factorsA-B type exotoxin inhibits protein synthesis by ADP ribosylation of EF-2, toxin encoded by gene on phage
Corynebacterium diptheriae transmissionAerosol droplets (asx carriage); contact with skin of infected person (cutaneous)
Corynebacterium diptheriae prevention/treatmentToxoid vaccine (childhood DPT vaccine); booster every 10 years, antitoxin immunoglobulin to neutralize toxin, penicillin, erythromycin
Enterococcus faecalis disease featuresUTI, Endocardltis especially in those With genitourinary manipulation)
Enterococcus faecalis identificationGm(+) COCCI In pairs or chains, Variable hemolYSIS; growth 'n bile·esculin: salt tolerant
Enterococcus faecalis pathogenic factorsWldespread antibiotic reslstance
Enterococcus faecalis transmissionEndogenous spread from normal flora of GI tract
Enterococcus faecalis prevention/treatmentAmpicillin (UTI), Amlnoglycoslde + ampicillin for systemic disease, Vancomycin for ampicillin resistant strains


Question Answer
Listeria monocytogenes disease featuresMentngltls and sepsIs in Immunocompromlsed and neonates (early onset), Late-onset neonatal disease (granulomatOSIs infantlseptlcum), Multiple-organ abscesses and granulomas
Listeria monocytogenes identificationGm(+) rod: tumbling motility, HemolYSIS
Listeria monocytogenes pathogenic factorsIntracellular growth in macrophages, listeriolysln 0; cold enrichment
Listeria monocytogenes transmissionFood-borne (unpasteurized dairy products, raw veggies)transplacentally or during birth to infected mother
Listeria monocytogenes prevention/treatmentAmpicillin+gentamicin


Question Answer
Staphylococcus aureus disease featuresToxin mediated: food poisoning; toxic shock syndrome; scalded skin syndrome, Pyogenic infections:skin lesions,endocarditis,osteomyelitis,nosocomial pneumonia
Staphylococcus aureus identificationgm+ cocci in cluster, salt tolerant, coagulase +, catalase +
Staphylococcus aureus pathogenic factorsantiphagocytis capsule, protein A, enterotoxins, TSST(superantigen); cytolytic toxins and enzymes; coagulase; catalase; penicillinase in many strains, PVL toxin in CA-MRSA
Staphylococcus aureus transmissionpreformed toxin in lunch meats, creamy foods, custards; normal skin and nasal flora, endogenous spread
Staphylococcus aureus prevention/treatmentMethicillin, cephalosporins, MRSA: vancomycins, linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline
Staphylococcus epidermis disease featuresInfection around catheters and other implants, Wound Infections
Staphylococcus epidermis identificationgm + cocci in clusters, Coag -, Catalase+, sensitive to novobiocin
Staphylococcus epidermis pathogenic factorsColonizes implanted devices, tissue-degrading enzymes
Staphylococcus epidermis transmissionEndogenous spread of normal skin flora, IV drug use
Staphylococcus epidermis prevention/treatmentVancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin


Question Answer
Staphylococcus saprophyticus disease featuresUTI in young women
Staphylococcus saprophyticus identificationGm + cocci in clusters, coag - catalse+ resistant to novobiocin
Staphylococcus saprophyticus pathogenic factorsAdheres to transitional epithelium
Staphylococcus saprophyticus transmissionSexual contact
Staphylococcus saprophyticus prevention/treatmentQuinolones


Question Answer
Streptococus agalactiae (GBS) disease featuresNeonatal meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis, postpartum sepsis
Streptococus agalactiae (GBS) identificationgm + cocci in chains, beta hemolysis, catalase (-), + cAMP test
Streptococus agalactiae (GBS) pathogenic factorsAntiphagocytic capsule, hemolysins and other degradative enzymes
Streptococus agalactiae (GBS) transmissionColonization of GI and vaginal tracts in some women
Streptococus agalactiae (GBS) prevention/treatmentThird - trimester screen and ampicillin before delivery
Streptococcus pneumoniae disease featuresPneumonia, Sinusitus, Otitis media, Meningitis, bronchitis
Streptococcus pneumoniae identificationGm+ football-shaped cocci in chains, alpha hemolysis; catalase -; quelling reaction; sensitive to optochin (P disk)
Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenic factorsAntiphagocytic capsule; IgA protease, pneumolysin
Streptococcus pneumoniae transmissionNormal throat and nasal flora; person to person spread via contact and aerosol droplets
Streptococcus pneumoniae prevention/treatmentCapsular vaccine for high-risk groups (children, elderly), Penicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, fluoroquinolones, macrolides
Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) disease featuresPharyngitis, skin lesions, necrotizing fasciitis. Toxin mediated: scarlet fever, Toxic shock, Immune sequelae: Rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis
Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) identificationGm + cocci, Beta hemolysis, catalase -, sensitive to bactitracin (a disk)
Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) pathogenic factorsM protein, hyaluronic acid capsule, F protein (adherence), streptolysin O and S, exotoxins
Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) transmissionAerosol droplets, person to person
Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) prevention/treatmentPenicillin G, cephalosporins


Question Answer
Bacteroides fragilis disease featuresIntra-abdominal abscesses, pelvic infections, peritonitis, bacteremia, wound infection
Bacteroides fragilis identificationgm - rod, anaerobic, produce foul-smelling fatty acids
Bacteroides fragilis pathogenic factorsAntiphagocytic capsule, cytolytic enzymes, weak endotoxin, mixed infections common
Bacteroides fragilis transmissionendogenous spread of normal colonic flora promoted by surgery or trauma
Bacteroides fragilis prevention/treatmentsurgical intervention, metronidazole, imipenem, clindamycin, BL-BLI
Bordetella pertussis disease featureswhooping cough
Bordetella pertussis identificationgm - coccobacillus; capsule, oxidase +, growth on bordet-gengou agar
Bordetella pertussis pathogenic factorsA-B type exotoxins increase cAMP by inhibiting “off” G protein, hemagglutinin tracheal cytotoxin
Bordetella pertussis transmissionResp droplets from cough of infected
Bordetella pertussis prevention/treatmentAcellular or inactive whole cell vaccine (DPT vaccine), Azithromycin


Question Answer
Brucella spp. disease featuresundulant fever, malaise, chills, sweats, weight loss, fever in waves
Brucella spp. identificationGm - coccobacillus, facultative intracellular
Brucella spp. pathogenic factorsgrowth in phagocytes and spread to spleen, liver, LN, BM, granuloma formation
Brucella spp. transmissionzoonotic spread via contaminated milk and cheese or contact w/ animal hosts
Brucella spp. prevention/treatmentPasteurize dairy, Tetracycline + streptomycin, TMP-SMX


Question Answer
Campylobacter jejuni disease featuresGastroenteritis, profuse watery or bloody diarrhea, pus in stool, fever, cramps
Campylobacter jejuni identificationGm - comma-shaped rod; motile, growth on campy plate, oxidase +, catalase +
Campylobacter jejuni pathogenic factorsulceration of mucosal surfaces of jejunum and colon; very infective (low ID50)
Campylobacter jejuni transmissionZoonotic spread via contaminated milk, water, poultry, meat
Campylobacter jejuni prevention/treatmentSymptomatic treatment, fluoroquinolones
Escherichia coli disease featuresWatery diarrhea in infants and travelers (ETEC, EPEC, EAggEC), , Dysentary (EIEC), Hemorrhagic colitis (EHEC) and HUS (EHEC O157:H7), , UTI (UPEC), Septicemia, neonatal meningitis
Escherichia coli identificationGm - rod, oxidase -, lactose +
Escherichia coli pathogenic factorsEndotoxin in all strains, enterotoxins in ETEC (heat labile (cAMP) or stable (cGMP), verotoxin in EHEC inhibits rRNA), Pili in UPEC adhere
Escherichia coli transmissionFecal-oral spread of normal GI tract flora (nosocomial contaminated food and water, self inoculation)
Escherichia coli prevention/treatmentAmpicillin or sufonamides for UTI, TMP-SMX and rehydration for diarrhea (not EHEC), Cephalosporins, quinolones for septicemia,


Question Answer
Francisella tularensis disease featuresskin ulcers, lymphadenopathy, eye ulcers in ocular form
Francisella tularensis identificationGm - coccobacillus, facultative intracellular, Growth on cystein media
Francisella tularensis pathogenic factorsAntiphagocytic capsule; growth in macrophages, very infective
Francisella tularensis transmissionZoonotic spread from animal resevoirs (rabbits, ticks)
Francisella tularensis prevention/treatmentAttenuated vaccine for at-risk individuals, streptomycin
Helicobacter pylori disease featuresType B gastritis, Gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers
Helicobacter pylori identificationGm - curved rod, highly motile, urease +, oxidase +, catalase +
Helicobacter pylori pathogenic factorsMotility; epithelial damage mediated by urease products, mucinase and cytotoxin
Helicobacter pylori transmissionIngestion
Helicobacter pylori prevention/treatmentTriple-drug therapy: bismuth+metronidazole+tetracycline+H2 blocker, or Omeprazole+amoxicillin+clarithromycin


Question Answer
Haemophilus ducreyi disease featuresChancroid - painful genital ulcer, inguinal buboes with purulent exudate
Haemophilus ducreyi identificationGm - coccobacillus, catalase -, factor X (heme) but not factor V(NAD) needed for growth
Haemophilus ducreyi pathogenic factorsPili that adhere to genital and perianal mucosa
Haemophilus ducreyi transmissionSexual contact
Haemophilus ducreyi prevention/treatmentCeftriaxone, azithromycin
Haemophilus influenzae disease featuresInfantile meningitis, pediatric epiglottitis, otitis media, Pneumonia in elderly and chronic pulm disease
Haemophilus influenzae identificationGm - coccobacillus, catalase +, Factors X and V on chocolate agar
Haemophilus influenzae pathogenic factorsColonization of upper resp tract; endotoxin, systemic infection only by encapsulated strains
Haemophilus influenzae transmissionEndogenous spread for URI, resp droplets
Haemophilus influenzae prevention/treatmentHib vaccine at 2,4,6 and 15 mo - ceftriaxone, BL-BLI