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jaudry's version from 2015-05-24 05:48

Cardiac cycle

ABCDEFGHIKJNLMOQRSPTVUXWYZ13452
Question Answer
ASystole
BDicrotic notch
CAtrial systole
DIsovolumetric contraction
ERapid ejection
FReduced ejection
GIsovolumetric relaxation
HRapid ventricular filling
IReduced ventricular filling
JAortic valve opens
KAortic valve closes
LMitral valve closes
MLeft atrial pressure
NLeft ventricular pressure
OMitral valve opens
PS4 - atrial kick
QS1 - mitral and tricuspid valve closure
RS2 - aortic and pulmonary valve closure
SS3 - in early diastole during rapid ventricular filling phase - assoc with increased filling pressure
TVentricular Volume
Ua - atrial contraction
Vc - RV contraction (tricuspid valve bulging into atrium)
Wx
Xv - increased atrial pressure due to filling against closed tricuspid valve
Yy
ZJVP
1P
2QRS
3T
4ECG
5P
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Cardiac cycle

ABCEDFGIHPJMKONL
Question Answer
Aincreased contractility (increasing SV and EF, lowering ESV)
Bincreased afterload (increasing aortic pressure, and ESV, decreasing SV)
CS2
DAortic valve closes
ESystolic ejection - period between aortic valve opening and closing
FAortic valve opens
GStroke Volume (EDV-ESV)
H Isovolumetric contraction - period b/w mitral valve closure and aortic valve opening - period of highest O2 consumption
I Isovolumetric relaxation - period b/w aortic valve closing and mitral valve opening
JMitral valve opens
KRapid filling (just after mitral opening) then Reduced filling (just before mitral valve closure)
LS3
MMitral valve closes
NS1
OS4
Pincreased stroke volume
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Action Potential

BCADEFGHIJ
Question Answer
A Na channel
B Calcium channel, Potassium channel
C Potassium
DDominated by Potassium
ENa
FCa
GK
HK
INa
JCa
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Contractility

FAGBECHD
Question Answer
AExercise (sympathetic nerve impulses
BNormal Starling Curve
C CHF + with treatment (digitalis)
D CHF untreated
ERange of systolic function
FIncreasing ionotropy (contractility)
GDecreasing ionotropy (contractility) [Disease states like CHF]
HHluid Overload status
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Cardiac and Vasc stuff

ABCED
Question Answer
AOperating point of heart
B decreased TPR (Exercise )
CCO
D mean systemic pressure
Eincreased TPR (hemorrhage)
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Chamber pressures

BDCEAFG
Question Answer
A< 5
B <130/90
C <25/10
D <12 PCWP
E <12
F <130/10
G <25/<5
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Coronary arteries

CBDEFA
Question Answer
AAcute marginal artery - supplies right ventricle
BRight Coronary Artery
CLeft Coronary Artery
D Left anterior descending artery - supplies apex and anterior interventricular septum
ECircumflex artery - supplies posterior left ventricle
FPosterior descending/interventricular artery (PD) - supplies posterior septum
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Cardiac Glycosides

AEFGBHCIDJ
Question Answer
ADigoxin action
B Ca2+ channel blockers and Beta blockers action
C Ryanodine action (poison in pesticides)
DCa2+ sensitizers
ENa+/K+ATPase
FNa+-Ca2+ exchanger
GVoltage gated (L-type) calcium channel
HCalcium pump in SR
IRyanodine receptor and calcium release channels in SR
JSite of CA and troponin-tropomyosin system
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Lipid Lowering Agents

BACD
Question Answer
AGemifibrozil
B HMG - CoA reductase inhibitors
CNiacin
DResins
EEzetimibe
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Antiarrhythmics

ABKCHDGIELJF
Question Answer
A effect of all class I drugs
BClass I B
CClass I C
DClass IA
EAll class I
FAll Class I
GCalcium
HClass IV action
IClass II action (beta blockers) - also reduce cAMP
JClass IV and II actions
K Class III
LClass III
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Heart Sounds

Question Answer
VSD - loudest at tricuspid - (holosystolic, harsh sounding) -
PDA -machinery murmur - loudest at S2 -
Mitral stenosis
Mitral prolapse - more common in women, assoc with E-D, and marfans - changing preload alters the position of the click (↑ by reclining, squatting, ↓ by standing, valsalva)
Aortic Stenosis - calcific (common >60 or bicuspid), congenital (common<30) also chronic rheumatic fever - ↓preload ↓murmur (opposite the effect w/hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) - can cause schistocytes
Aortic Regurg - causes: isolated AV root dilation, infective endocarditis, long standing essential HTN, chronic rheumatic, aortis diss, coarct, syph, takayasu - bounding pulses, head nodding, austin flint murmur ( AV regurg hits MV leaflet)
Tricuspid/Mitral regurg -
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