STDs II, Vaginal Bleeding, Vaginal (and other) Pathology

omarys's version from 2017-05-18 21:29

Section 1

Question Answer
What drugs may cause iatrogenic vaginal bleeding?Warfarin, aspirin
What type of epithelium lines the uterus?columnar epithelium
Which TWO types of epithelium line the cervix uteri? (Hint: ectocervix pH is low because it's close to the vagina)columnar epithelium (lines the endocervix) and stratified squamous epithelium (ectocervix)
Define transformation zone (in the cervix uteri)the area in the cervix where 2 types of epithelium meet; the squamocolumnar junction
The HPV has a predilection for which anatomical location in the female reproductive system?The transformation zone in the cervix (=the area of metaplasia)

Section 2

Question Answer
Which strains of HPV cause anogenital warts?6 and 11 (among others)
Which strains of HPV are carcinogenic?16, 18, 31, 33 (among others)
A genital wart is AKAcondyloma
About 90% of those who contract HPVwill NOT develop genital warts (and the infection is self-limiting)
PAP smear of cervical mucosa from an HPV-infected woman will show (what pathological change?)dysplasia
A screening test (PAP smear) for women aged 25-65 is a type of ___ preventionsecondary
TRUE OR FALSE- It takes a few months for an HPV infection to progress into a cervical carcinoma.False. It takes years, possibly decades.

Section 3

Question Answer
TRUE OR FALSE- The HPV vaccine is not appropriate for pregnant women.False. The opposite is true- the vaccine may even prove protective for the fetus as well.
TRUE OR FALSE- Men can also develop an HPV-related cancer.True. There is a link between HPV infection and penile and anal cancers in men.
TRUE OR FALSE- Syphilis causes symptoms that are limited to the genital area, such as skin lesions (chancre).False. Syphilis is a multi-system disease, affecting the CV and the nervous systems in its tertiary stage.

Section 4

Question Answer
Tx of syphilisPenicillin G (if allergic, use doxycycline)
What STD is often (>90% of cases) transferred from the mother to the fetus and can cause a severe disease?syphilis
What is a VDRL test?a screening test (high sensitivity) for syphilis - venereal disease research laboratory test
Two major pathogens causing ulcers in the genital areaTreponema pallidum and herpes simplex
Lymphomas and granulomas can both cause ___ in the genital area (what skin lesion?)ulcers
PCR and/or serology is used to diagnose a ____ ____ infection.herpes simplex
A syphilis ulcer isnot painful
The STD caused by chlamydia trachomatis is calledLymphogranuloma venereum
Genital herpes clinically manifests as ___ ____ ____ ulcerssmall ; painful ; pruritic
Chancroid is a ____ STD (bacterial/viral/parasitic/fungal)bacterial
Chancroid involves _______ (what pathology?)lymphadenopathy

Section 5

Question Answer
Vaginal/cervical secretions include liquid, bacteria and ___cells (shed vaginal and cervical cells)
Abnormal vaginal discharge is characterized by a change in ____ and ____, as well as ____color ; odor ; consistency
These bacteria are a normal and major constituent of the vaginal microbiotalactobacilli
Lactobacilli convert ____ into ____ acidsugars ; lactic
Lactobacilli account for the vagina's low ___pH (high acidity)
Normal vaginal pH is below ___4.5
a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteriabacterial vaginosis (BV)
Clue cells areepithelial cells of the vagina having a characteristic stippled appearance (due to being covered by bacteria)
a fishy smelling, thin gray vaginal discharge, and an increase in vaginal pH to over 5.5 are characteristic ofbacterial vaginosis
The predominant pathogen causing bacterial vaginosis (BV) isGardnerella vaginalis

Section 6

Question Answer
Increased risk of early ____ is a feature of bacterial vaginosisdelivery
In clinical practice, BV is diagnosed thru A) observing the characteristic discharge, B) observing clue cells in microscopy, andC) pH > 4.5 ; D) release of fishy odor when adding alkali (10% KOH)
Trichomoniasis discharge is ___ (less/more) foul smelling than BV discharge.less
Trichomoniasis discharge is ____ish, in contrast to the grey-yellowish discharge in
Trichomoniasis discharge is ___ (consistency?), in contrast to the "thin" discharge in BV.frothy/foamy
Trichomoniasis is usually _______ (symptoms?)asymptomatic
Symptoms of trichomoniasis include the characteristic discharge (green & foamy) as well as a _____ _____ caused by inflammation and vasodilation in the vagina.strawberry cervix
Diagnosis of trichomoniasis is observation of ____ ______ on a ____ _____ prepcorkscrew motility ; wet mount
Tx of trichomoniasis is withmetronidazole, either topically (vaginal cream) or per os (check the topical thing)
TRUE OR FALSE- Trichomoniasis is often accompanied by other STDs, as well as by candidiasis.True. But it's still less severe than BV.
Vaginal pH will still be normal (below 4.5) in ______candidiasis
White, cottage cheese-like discharge characterizes an infection by which pathogen?Candida albicans
The majority (about 70%) of women and men infected with this pathogen do not show any symptomsTrichomonas vaginalis

Section 7

Question Answer
Primary prevention of a Zika virus infection?Avoid exposure to the Aedes mosquito. The illness CANNOT be prevented by medications or vaccines.
The Aedes mosquito is the vector of which pathogen?Zika virus
An arbovirus is any virus that isborne by arthropods, e.g. mosquito ("AR-BOvirus" = Arthropod-Borne virus)
Arbovirus infections (generally) are characterized by which symptoms?Fever, malaise, headache (sometimes- encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever)
The Zika virus belongs to the _____ family, which also includes the West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, and dengue virus.Flaviviridae
Maternal infection of the Zika virus can result in vertical transmission to the fetus, who may suffer from ____ as a resultmicrocephaly
In adults, Zika virus infection causesmild, flu-like symptoms

Section 8

Question Answer
This pathogen affects the hematopoietic systemParvovirus
Parvovirus transmission is common in/between (Hint- "parvo" = small)Children, e.g. in day care centers
At which stage of pregnancy is parvovirus infection most serious for the fetus?Weeks 13-20 (bone marrow --rather than liver/spleen-- begins producing RBCs)
Parvovirus causes ____ and _____ in the fetusanemia ; hydrops fetalis
An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the fetus, possibly including pericardial effusion or pleural effusionhydrops fetalis
What is the mechanism by which hydrops fetalis develops?ZIKV causes anemia > heart increases CO to compensate > cardiac failure
What life saving procedure can be used to treat the fetus in ZIKV infection?Transfusion of packed RBCs thru umbilical vein (Tx for any fetal anemia)

Section 9

Question Answer
Amniorrhexis is AKAROM (rupture of membranes), i.e. "water breaking"
Premature ROM (=PROM) may increase the risk of which life threatening condition?Chorioamnionitis (bacterial infection; dangerous to both the mother and the fetus)