bidamifi's version from 2017-04-03 22:28


Question Answer
MeanAdd all the numbers together then divide by how many numbers
MedianPut in order and then check for the middle number
ModeHighly repeated number the one that never changes
How many subjects are there in Drug A groupAbsolute risk reduction 6% - Standard therapy 4% -> 2 -> Number of pts 24 / 2 -> 12 X 100 -> 1200
Pt neither dr is aware who is taking placebo or actual drug prevents whatObserver bias
Recently Grandparent passed away 2 months ago and 5yr old girl is talking to her in a room with empty chairNormal behavior Under age 6
Probabiliy pt truly does not have a diseaseNegative predictive value
SensitivityPpl test + and have the disease
SpecificityPpl test - and DO not have disease
PPVProbability of person who tested + will have the disease
NPVProbability of person who tested - will not have the disease


Question Answer Column 3
B-blockers, A2 agonists, Carbonic anhydraseAQUEOUS HUMOR INFLOWCiliary epithelium
Muscarnic agonsitTrabecular OUTFLOWTrabecular meshwork
Prostaglandin agonistUvescleral OUTFLOWLatanoprost
Cherry red spot(PICTURE)Taysach(no hepatosplenomegaly), Neimmanpick(Hepatosplenomegaly), Retinal artery occlusion Acute painless vision loss


Question Answer
Pure RBC Aplasia seen inParvovirus, Lymphocytic leukemia, Thymoma
Liquefactive necrosisLysosomal digestion of the CNS
Pt with hypternsion, hypercholestrolemia, right arm weakness, difficulty speaking, resolves within a few minutesTransient ischemic attack Tx ASpirin
Aorti and mitral valve both involvement producesIncreased left ventricular diastolic pressure
PNH (hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinuria, pancytopenia, thrombosis) renal findingsHemosiderosis -> Iron deposition
Molar prganancyEnlarged chorionic villi and avascular edematous stroma
Ectopic pregnancyDilated coiled endometrial glands and edematous stroma due to progesterone
S.epidermis virulenceBiofilm -> Synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide matrix
3-5 exonuclease activityProof reading
Normal pressure Hydrocephalus and Communicating hydrocephalus AND Hydrocephalus ex vacoSame thing -> Impaired absorption of CSF
Hypotensive cerebral perfusion ischemiaBilateral wedge shaped stripsof necrosis over the cerebral convexity, parallel, and longitudinal cerebral fissure
Refractory nausea & vomiting despite being on ondansteronNeurokinin 1 anatagonist -> Aprepitant OR Fosaprepitant
H.Influenza Nontypable 90% No capsule vaccineOtits media in kids
Protein contains multiple alpha-helical regions with amino acids, isoleucine, alanine, valine, leucine helps with(Anchoring protein to the cell membrane)
Glucagon binds intracelluar GTP which activatesProtein Kinase A -> cAMP
Pt with CF OR Asthma, with eosinophiliA & IgEAspergilliiosis
Ring enhancing lesionsToxoplasmosis, Nocardia, Primary Central Lymphoma
Pt from central america, africa with travel history or migration a while back months to years incubation with seizures and intracranial hypertension. MRI of brain shows 2.5 centimeter cyst within the left sylvian fissureNurocystericerosis -> Taneia solium Exposure of infected stool
Atriovenous Fistula does what?Increase VOLUME ONLY Increase preload ONLY
Aspergilliosis vs NocardiaBoth are septate but Nocardia causes ring enhancing lesions in brain with nodules and not infiltrates in the lungs
GVH DiseaseGraft T cell sensitization against host MHC antigen
Lipopolysacharride(Shock,Spesis) destroysNF-kB(OSTEOCLASTS)
Trastuzumab targetsTyrosine Kinase receptor
Burkitt LymphomaTranscription factor
BCR- ABL Chronic myelogenous leukemiaTyrosine Kinase upregulation
Pregnant Mother with HbsAg & HBeAg, what would you see in her baby?Infant has no symptoms, maybe liver enzymes elevated, High risk for chronic infection, High viral load & HBeAg positive
Elevated jugular venous pressure, bilateral lower extremity edema, left ventricular diastolic PRESSURE increased & NORMAL volumeRestrictive heart failure -> Transthyterin deposition
Transmural inflammation of mid-sized arteries withareas of amorphous eosin staining arterial wall necrosisPolyarteritis Nodsa have Greatest risk factor is hepatitis B
Superior Gluteal nerve injuryPositive Rohomberg test where pelvis tilts to the opposite side of lesion
Wrinkle caused by decreaseCollagen Fibril production
Ankylosing spondylitis HLA I
Boy with orbital hypertelorism, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, TOFDigeorge 22q11.2 deletion Chromosome microdeletion
Unilateral V3 injuryDeviationof mandible to paralyzed side with opening mouth -> Foramen ovale
Bilateral V3 injuryMandibular drop and lack of jaw movement
Boy with athersclerosis with elevated methionine & homocysteine(athersclerosis) levelsHomocystinuria -> Cystathionine synthase deficiency OR Cofactor B6-> CYSTEINE ESSENTIAL
SCID candida antigen tests forCd4 T lymphocytes and macrophages
Niacin Deficiency could be either due to ~increased levels of neutral amino acid in the urine "Lack of Tryptophan due to Hartnup disease
Niacin deficency due to cofactorb6 -> Pyridoxine deficiency
Murmur radiate to axillaMR
Murmur radiate to neckAS
Recombination vs ReassortmentGene mixing vs Segment mixing
Inhibitors drugsCimetidine, Ciprofloxacin, Macrolides, Verapamil
Carnitine deficiencyMurmurs, Low glucose, Lack of ketones Acetoacetate, Incread triglycerides
Potency of inhaled anestheticMinimal alveolar concentration
Solubility of anthesticBlood/gas partition coefficient
Ventral posterior thalamusOne sided paralysis with loss of temperature touch vibration & Sensation
Decreased androgen aromatizationAnaztrazole
Decreased peripheral androgen conversionKetoconazole
Flutamide, Cyproterone, Spirnolactone MOAImpair androgen receptor interaction
Penicillins & cephalosporins(ceftrixone) function irreversibily binding toPenicillin binding protein like transpeptidases
Delirium DOCHaloperidol
Drug used in refractory psychotic conditionClozapine
Vomiting(Mallory weiss) acid base disturbanceMetabolic alkalosis
Aspirin allergy(wheezing & SOB) what is the next DOCClopidogrel NOT Cilostazol
Pterion of the skull fracture and what artery affected?Epidural hematoma -> Middle meningeal artery -> Maxillary atery
Cervical lymphadenopathy in kenya man with fever, night sweats, owl eye biopsy, weight lossHodgkin Lymphoma
Abdomen, pelvic OR JAW mass in someone from africa, starry sky appearanceEBV
Non motile, non lactose fermenting that invades mucosa of the M cells of peyers patch, that does NOT produce H2S on triple sugar iron agarShigella
Vasopressin and desmopressin ADHINCREASES water & urea absorption at the medullary collecting duct -> Urine output decrease, Urine osmolarity increase, Urea clearance in urine decrease
PCT chart anything that increases or comes out in the urinePAH, inulin, creatinine, electrolytes, urea
PCT chart anything that decreases or fall under the chart or does not come outAmino acid, bicarbonate or glucose PATHOLOGY
Intracranial hypertension(PAPILLEDEMA), skin changes, hepatosplenomegalyVitamin A OVERUSE
During gluconeogenesis, Phosphoenolpyruvate -> Oxaloacetate makes GTP JUST like it is made induring TCA cycle, Succinyl-CoA -> Succinate making GTP
Granulomas are made of macrophages& t cellsTH-1, IL-2, IFN-y
CGD Organisms due to defective NADPH oxidase of catalase + orgainsmsASSMN -> Aspergilliosis, Serratia cepacia, S.Aureus, Marcescens, Nocardia
Excess acid is excreted in urine during lactic acidosis with the help of which amino acid?Glutamine -> Glutamate
S-I-T-SAbduction, External rotation, Adduction & External rotation, Adduction & Internal rotation
Pramipexole, Bromocritpine"In Love" -> Directly sitmulates dopamine receptors
Motor part of corneal reflexFacial
Sensory part of corneal reflexV1
Cephalosporin resistant organisms areListeria Monocytogenes(Ampicillin), Enterococci, Atypicals, Methiccillin staphylococcus
Nitroglycerine vs NitrpurssideVenodilator decrease preload vs Veno&Vasodilator Decrease preload & afterload
Southern & Northern blotting but involves hybridizationof a large number of probes at onceMicroarray
4types of smokers and checking there force expiatory flowAnalysis of variance
2types of smokers and checking there force expiratory flowT-test
Regenerative level of endometriumBasalis
Hpv Vaccine6 & 11condolyomata / 16 & 18 CIN or VAIN
High Risk HPV31, 33, 16 & 18 -> E6 increases destruction of p53 & E7 increases destruction of RB
Pt who has B12 deficiency can lead to methionine synthase impairementLeading to elevated Homocyteine causing atherosclerosis buildup
Selective direct relaxation(vasodilation) of smooth muscle of arterioles NO EFFECT ON VEINSHydralazine & Minoxidil
Vasodilator Hydralazine & Minoxidil SXReflex sympathetic action -> Turns on renin Angio Tensin System -> Na & Water Retention
SLE Lab value you would seeDecrease C3&C4level beacuse immune eats up complement
Liver Disease complicationsHyperammonia -> Crosses blood brain barrier -> Glutamine accumulation in astrocytes -> Cant convert Glutamine to Glutamate -> Decreased GABAjerky movements~
Charcot Bpuchard aneurysm -> Hypertensive Vasculopathy affects what ?Basal Ganglia -> Lenticulostriate arteries(Small branches above the middle cerebral artery)
Beta 1Constriciton
Beta 2Vasodilation, Bronchodilation
Alpha 1Vasoconstriction, Increase smooth muscle proliferation
Alpha 2Vasodilation & Decrease blood pressure
Phase4 - Resting membrane potential of muscle cellHigh potassium conductance & some sodium
Phase3 - Repolarization of muscle cellHigh potassium conductance only
Phase2 - PlateauCalcium Potassium pump
What lab value will be high in Aplastic AnemiaErythropoietin in a normal kidney function
Baby with blue eyes-> Osteogensis imperfective MOABone Matrix formation
Indication for left sided heart failureSupine dyspnea that is relieved by sitting up(CHF)
Pt with breast cancer has overexpression of tyrosine kinase activityHER2 -> Accelerates cell proliferation
Cryptococcus Neoformans immunocompromisedMeningitis & Pneumonia -> Mucicarmine stain PICTURE
During fasting blood glucose is normal within the first few hrs due toGlycogen -> glucose-1-phosphate
During prolonged fasting blood glucose is normal after 18 hrs is due toGluconeogensis -> Pyruvate 2 Oxaloacetate 2 phosphoenolpyruvate Pyruvate carboxylase & phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (ENZYMES)
Pt faints when Posterior wall meatus of external audiatory canal stimulated with sepeculumVagus
Choroidal inflammation(Uveitits)Inflammatory bowel disease, Ankylosing spondylitis
Pt with headache, papilledema, bending down or coughing causes loss of vision for a minuteIdiopathic Intracranial hypertension -> Impaired optic nerve axoplasmic flow
Decrease activity of NF-kB pathway impairs(CHRONS)Cytokine production
Takayasu Arteritis VS Coarctation of AortaWeak UPPER Extremity pulses VS Weak LOWER Extremity pulses
Biopsy of a child thigh shows IgA & C3 DepositionHenoch Schonlein Purpura -> Leukocytoclastic angitis
Borrelia burgdorferi aka lymp disease DOCCeftriaxone or Doxycycline
Live vaccinesLIVE Small Yellow Chicken show MMR, SABIN Polio
Diabetes inspidiusIncrease osmolarity / Decrease ICF & ECF -> Hyper osmotic volume contraction
Diarrhea or GI hemorrhageNo change osmolarity / Decreased ECF & Normal ICF -> Loss of isotonic solution
Adrenal insufficiencyDecrease osmolarity / Increase ICF & Decrease ECF -> Hypertonic loss of sodium
Hypertonic saline infusionIncrease osmolarity / Decrease ICF & Increase ECF
SIADH, Primary polydipsiaDecrease osmolarity, Increase ICF
Missing of 1st and 2nd pouches causesTreacher-collins syndrome
1st arch derivativesMaxilla,zygoma, mandible,incus,maxilla
2nd arch derivativesStyloid process, Stapes, lesser horn of hyoid
G6PD deficiencyGlucose 6 phosphate -> 6Phosphogluconate
Pringle manuver inhibits hepatic portal vein, Hepatic artery, common bile duct but NOTHepatic vein or IVC
Immediate sensitivity vs Antibody mediated hypersensitivityAnaphylaxis VS Graft becomes cyanotic and mottled soon after blood vessels connected
Mom sad after baby born within 2-3daysPostpartum blues -> goes away within 2 weeks
MilirionePhosphodiaesterase 3 inhibitior -> cAMP ->Positive Ionotropy & Vasodilation
Elevated pH in the vagina assocaited withBV, Trichomonas vaginitis
Tetnaus toxin blocksGABA & Glycine
Connexions in a pt with laborGap junctions
Antibiotics wipe of g+ bacteria in the vagina causesCandida
Multiple sclerosis spasms txBaclofen -> Gaba agonist OR Tizanidine-> alpha 2 agonist
Accumulation of short multibranched polysacharide within the cytosol of the hepatocytesCori Disease -> Deficiency of debranching enzymes
Prevent seizure reccurencePhenyton -> Decrease sodium current the corticol neurons
Brain hypodensity in CT scanIschemia due to embolism or thrombosis
Brian lipid stainingMicroglia due to phagocytosis of myelin
Prolactin inhibitsGnRH-> Leading to decreased of EVERYTHING
Rapid correction of HyponatremiaOsmotic demyelination syndrome Central ponitine myelinlysis
Rapid correction of HypernatremiaCerebral Edema
Fanconi syndromeAplastic anemia due to bone marrow failure with increased risk of AML Finger missing(THUMB)


HandgripAR,MR,VSDHCMIncrease afterload
Passive leg raisestenotic or regurgitant valveMitral valve prolapse & HCMIncrease Preload
Squattingstenotic or reguritant valveMitral valve prolapse & HCMIncrease preload & afterload
InspirationMost right sided murmursMost left sided murmursIncrease venous return to right heart, Decrease return to left heart
Abrubt standing OR Valsalva strainMVP, HCMStenotic or regurgitant flowDecrease prelaod & afterload