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Sports Injuries Lecture Week 6 - Overuse Injuries

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bethdrysdale94's version from 2017-01-16 16:05

Section

Question Answer
Which type of running is an overuse injury of the upper leg most common?Track sprint
In novice running, which overuse injuries are most common?1) lower leg, 2) knee
Which two types of running are the lower leg followed by the knee the most common overuse injuries?Cross country and marathon running
What are the first and second most common overuse injuries in recreation running?1) knee, 2) lower leg
What is the highest risk factor for an overuse injury?previous injury
What are potential risk factors for overuse injuries?Q angle > 20 degree (pelvis-knee angle), weekly distance and frequency, age of shoes, surface, age, high BMI etc
How can biomechanics help us understand injuries?maximise performance whilst reducing injury; identify forces needed for training and adaptation but also potential tissue injuries
What are the theoretical and experimental forms of biomechanical data acquisition?Theo: Computer simulation. Exp: 3d motion analysis, force analysis, electromyography, imaging
What are the phases of the gait cycle?Stance phase, swing phase
What are the periods of the gait cycle?loading response, midstance, terminal stance, pre-swing, initial swing, mid swing, terminal swing
What is iliotibial band syndrome?occurs due to friction between iliotibial band and underlying epicondyle of the femur (mainly during stance) - presents as an ache over lateral aspect of knee brought on by running
What was Noehren et al 2007 study?2 year prospective study, 400 recreational female runners. 18 developed ITBS (no previous history)
What did the Miller et al 2007 study show?Knee flexion at heel strike angle was higher in those with ITBS at the beginning of run and increased at the end. Peak strain was higher at the beginning and end of the run compared to control.
What were the observations of those with Patellofemoral pain?less peak knee flexion, peak hip adduction, eversion excursion, etc - main effect was time, peaks were at the end of the run. PFP generally demonstrated less overall motion.
Where does achilles tendinopathy occur?mid-portion and insertional.
When does achilles tendinopathy present?when training or volume intensity is increased
What are the main observations with mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy?increased eversion range of motion, reduced maximum lower leg abduction, reduced ankle joint dorsiflexion velocity, reduced knee flexion
What were the main findings about running on a cambered surface?Leg in middle of the road had; less supinated TD angle (landed more upright). greater max pronation, greater max velocity of pronation, greater total rearfoot motion, no difference in time to max pronation or peak acceleration, no change in impact shock
What is kinematic coordination?measuring how joint behaves at the same time as another joint. Spatial coordination, temporal coordination (when max angle of each joint occurs)
In a trial with 2 years follow up, what did VIP and VALR show between injured and non-injured runners?Vip and VALR were significantly different (VIP = Vertical impact peak, VALR = vertical average loading rate). All same foot strike pattern though
What are the different types of foot strikes?heel strike, mid-foot strike, forefoot strike
Over a long run (exhaustive run) what happens to forefoot strike runners?Transition more towards midfoot strike. forefoot running pattern difficult to maintain during endurance events
What is the risk with heel strike/rear-foot strike running?initial impact transient of vertical ground force which is absent in forefoot strikers. Overloading of joint may lead to bony and cartilagenous injuries
How do injuries differ between forefoot strike and heel strike runners?FFS: more plantar surface injuries, increased number of calf injuries. HS: more knee injuries and plantar fasciitis
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