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Sports Injuries Extra

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bethdrysdale94's version from 2017-01-19 20:48

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Question Answer
When are RR and OR similar or even identical?When a disease/injury is particularly rare. When prevalence and incidence are very low, OR moves closer to the RR
What is cartilage?Cartilage is composed of specialized cells called chondrocytes that produce a large amount of collagenous extracellular matrix, abundant ground substance that is rich in proteoglycan and elastin fibers
What is the structure of cartilage?That is, mature cartilage cells are called chondrocytes. They occur, either singly or in groups, within spaces called lacunae (sing. lacuna) in the matrix. The surface of most of the cartilage in the body is surrounded by a membrane of dense irregular connective tissue called perichondrium. This is important to remember especially because, unlike other connective tissues, cartilage contains no blood vessels or nerves except in the perichondrium.
How is cartilage nourished?The main source of nourishment for articular cartilage is the synovial fluid, which fills the joint cavity
What is the function of articular cartilage?Its principal function is to provide a smooth, lubricated surface for articulation and to facilitate the transmission of loads with a low frictional coefficient
What are the failure loads of the lateral ankle ligaments?297, 558 and 594 N respectively
What is a stress fracture?A stress fracture is a small crack in a bone, or severe bruising within a bone. Most stress fractures are caused by overuse and repetitive activity, and are common in runners and athletes who participate in running sports, such as soccer and basketball.
What are the most common sites for stress fractures?Tibia and metatarsal (most common) - fibula and navicular and calcaneus are other common sites
What is Bahr and Holmes injury model of causation? 2003Incidence and severity > aetiology, mechanisms > preventative measure > repeat step one
What is the sequential process of tendon healing?Inflammation, neovasulrisation, neural ingrowth, recruitment of healing cells, proliferation and aptosis
What factors prevent healing in Fu's failed healing theory?Either the tendon has not received significant rest in order for these processes to happen, or the initial inflammatory process is disturbed by the prescription of NSAIDS causing an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokaines and not the ordinary inflammatory infiltration into the damaged tissue. Fu also surmises that depending on the location of the pathology, there could be a peritendious reaction which may lead to a restrictive fibrosis due to increased innervations and vascular in-growth may also occur from the paratendon.
What is the origin, orientation and insertion of the ACL?Arises from the posteromedial corner of medial aspect of lateral femoral condyle in the intercondylar notch. Runs, inferiorly, medially and anteriorly. Inserts Anterior to the intercondyloid eminence of the tibia, being blended with the anterior horn of the medial meniscus.
How is optical motion analysis used in ACL injury repair?Patients with ACL injury can be assessed using motion analysis before and after ACL reconstruction. The functional assessment is conducted in a gait laboratory (Figure ​(Figure8),8), which is equipped of more than three high-speed cameras and data processing software, providing 10 × 5 m2 captured volume. The three dimensional coordinates of nine-millimeter reflective markers can be recognized in the captured volume by means of infra-red light emitting cameras. In the centre of the captured volume, force plates are placed on floor level in order to collect ground reaction force during the movement
What are the high ankle ligaments?Interosseus membrane and Anterior Inferior Talo-fibular ligament
What is the UCLA shoulder thing?It has 5 sub-scales made up of active forward elevation and strength (physician reported) and pain, satisfaction, and function (patient reported). A maximum score of 35 is possible with higher scores indicating better outcomes.
ASES shoulder score1 pain item and 10 function/disability items, for a total of 11 items.
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