Sport psych chapters 1 & 2rename
ohsobeezee23's version from 2015-12-01 21:27
|What is behavior, generally and technically?||In general terms behavior is anything that a person says or does. Technically, behavior is any muscular, glandular, or electrical activity of an organism.|
|Behavior sport examples||dunking a basketball, throwing a dodge-ball. choosing which golf club to use etc.|
|What are three synonyms for behavior||Performance, reaction, response|
|How do many people use general terms such as intelligence, attitude, and personality?||use it to summarize one's behavior|
|What is a behavioral perspective of such traditional psychological terms as intelligence, attitude, and personality? Illustrate a behavioral interpretation of one of the terms with reference to an example.||Personality, motivation and intelligence also refer to the kinds of behavior which a person displays. One’s personality generally refers to ones characteristics mode of interacting with others. For example Joe has a good personality because he always brings sports drinks for everyone.|
|What is behavioral sport psychology?||Involves the use of behavior analysis principles and techniques to enhance the performance and satisfaction of athletes and others associated with sports.|
|What are three synonyms for stimulus when a stimulus precedes and influences behavior?||cue, signal and prompt.|
|According to many psychologists, what does the word “cognition” mean?||“beliefs” “thought” “expectancy” and “attitude.”|
|What assumptions does the author make concerning cognition||That there are practical and theoretical advantages to looking at such procedures from a consistent behavioral viewpoint|
|List three reasons that behavioral sport psychology researchers commonly use single-subject research designs.||• They require assessment of individual athletic performance across several practices and/or competitions, which is very useful information for such athletes and coaches|
• Athletes and coaches commonly accept such research designs because few participants are needed, and sooner or later all participants experience the intervention (no control groups)
• Rather than use personality questioners, they require assessment of athletic behaviors or outcomes of such behaviors.
|What three questions does social validity address||• What do the athletes (and perhaps the coach and parents) think about the goals of the intervention?|
• What do they think about the procedures suggested by the consultant?
• What do they think about the results produced by those procedures?
|Define behavioral assessment.||concerned with identifying and describing a target behavior, identifying possible cause of the behavior, selecting an appropriate treatment strategy to modify the behavior, and evaluating treatment outcome.|
|Describe four misconceptions that many people have about sport psychology. Explain why each is a misconception||a. “to do well in competition, you have to get yourself really psyched up” this is a misconception because it might be true for some individual, but it does not apply to everyone else. A swimmer about to swim a 50 meter race should be physiologically aroused but if its 1500 he should be reasonably relaxed |
b. “sport psychology alone can make one a super athlete” This is a misconception because athlete need extensive preparation in four main areas to be a good athlete. These four main areas are Physical, technical, tactical, psychological
c. “sport psychologist only consult with athlete at competitions” This is a misconception because psychological strategies can help athlete to improve performance in all aspects of practices and competitions
d. “to get really good at mental preparation, all you have to do is talk to a sport psychologist.” This is a misconception because, metal skills are like physical skill – they are behaviors that occur in certain settings, and to be good at them they must be learned and practiced.
|Describe four main areas of athletic preparation. For each area, list a relevant item from the sport psychology questionnaire for basketball players.||Physical, Technical, Tactical and Psychological. |
Physical – Athlete must be in excellent physical condition • A relevant item from the questionnaire: would you say that, just before or during a game, you need to improve at having a better health management plan before games? (e.g. fetting enough sleep, drinking enough water, eating properly.)
Technical – Athlete technical skill must be correct, highly practiced, and second nature to the athlete • A relevant item from the questionnaire: would you say that, just before or during a game, you need to improve at maintaining your concentration at the task at hand? (e.g. focusing on the front rim before each shot, taking it on eplay at a time)
Tactical – Athlete must have a game plan for dealing with certain opponents, running certain races, skiing certain course, etc. • A relevant item from the questionnaire: would you say that, just before or during a game, you need to improve at identifying and reacting to your opponents’ weaknesses and making adjustments as the game progresses? (e.g. your shot is not going in, the opponent is taking away the right-hand drive)
Psychological – refers generally to mental preparation. • A relevant item from the questionnaire: would you say that, just before or during a game, you need to improve at thinking positive thoughts? (e.g. “an easy 2 points”)
|What are four possible cause of slumps identified by Taylor? Briefly describe a specific sport example of each.||First, slumps may be a physical cause Example, previous ankle injury, can make a basketball player slow and hesitant|
Second, slumps may be the result of some slight change of the athlete technique Example, a basketball jump higher than he usually does when he shoots
Third, slumps might be caused by the slight change in the equipment used in particular sport Example, a baseball player bought a new bat, but it’s slightly heavier than hes old one
Fourth, inadequate mental preparation Example, an athlete who always focus on the negative.
|List six objective dimensions for describing behavior.||Topography (form)|
Latency (reaction time)
|What are the two reason for being specific in the identification of target behaviors||a. Help ensure the reliability of detecting improvement in the behavior (the yardstick by which one judges the effectiveness of a treatment program) |
b. Increase the likelihood that your treatment program will be applied consistently
|Name and describe the three minimal phases of a behavioral treatment program.||Baseline phase - the target behavior is assess in order to determine its level prior to the introduction of the intervention. |
Treatment phase - that period of time, after the initial baseline assessments, during which you intervene in various ways to attempt to help the athlete.
Follow-up phase – to determine whether the improvements achieved during treatment are maintained after the termination of the program
|What is baseline? Briefly describe the baseline conditions in coach Kewell’s program with swimmers||A phase in an effective behavioral treatment program. The target behavior is assessed in order to determine its level prior to the introduction of the intervention|
Coach Keedwell obtained a baseline of the number of missed turns and unscheduled stops of the swimmers