Speech Acts

gemmalesley's version from 2017-05-09 19:51


Question Answer
What is a Speech Act? An utterance that has a performative function in an utterance.
Kent Bach"Almost any speech act is really the performance of several acts at once."
5 Types of Speech ActDeclaration, Representative, Expressive, Directive, Commissive
John Austin, 1962'How to do things with words'
Performative UtterancesNot only describing a given reality, but also changing the social reality they are describing
DeclarationChanging the world with words; "I now pronounce you man and wife"
RepresentativeWhat the speaker believes to be true; "The Earth is flat"
ExpressiveWhat the speaker feels; "I'm sorry!"
DirectiveGetting someone to do something; "Get that essay in on time!"
CommissiveCommitment to future action; "I'll see you tomorrow!"
Locutionary ActWhat is said or written
Illocutionary ActThe performing of a communicative function; what the speaker does in making a locutionary act
Perlocutionary ActThe effect of the illocutionary act
John Searle, 1962"Actions can be carried out on a continuum from direct and unambiguous to indirect and opaque."
Indirect Speech ActsBeat around the bush; could still be Declarative, Interrogative or Imperative
Direct Speech ActsDeclaratives, interrogatives or imperatives; assertion, questions, orders or requests
Performative VerbsAllow expansion of types of Direct Speech; it explicitly states the kind of speech act being performed
Felicity ConditionsA speech act is unhappy, or infelicitous, when the conditions are not met
4 Felicitity ConditionsPropositional Content Condition, Preparatory Condition, Sincerity Condition and Essential Condition
Propositional Content ConditionThere must be a sentence with the content of the promise.
Preparatory ConditionIt should be beneficial to the addressee; and not happening anyway.
Sincerity ConditionThe promiser must have the intention to keep the promise.
Essential ConditionThe promiser must be aware of the obligation to fulfil the act.