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Species Specific Anesthesia

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jkluger's version from 2016-11-20 13:49

Pigs

Question Answer
Why is restraint difficult in pigs?Because they are easily stressed
Why is venous access hard on pigs?They have a large subcutaneous fat layer
Which veins can be used for vascular access?auricular and cephalic (femoral, medial & lateral saphenous can be used but not recommended)
Which animals can you use subcutaneous administration?Only in young/immature animals
What can be administered to avoid excessive salivation?Anticholinergics
Where might the endotracheal tube get caught when inserting it?Laryngeal ventricles on the floor of the larynx
How can having little body hair affect thermoregulation?increased risk of hypothermia
Certain breeds are predisposed to what?Malignant Hyperthermia
What are the signs of malignant hyperthermia?Hypercapnia, muscle rigidity, acidosis, hyperemia, tachycardia
What is used to treat malignant hyperthermia?Datrolene
Which butyrophenone is used often for premedication?Azaperone
What are the side effects of Azaperone use?Hypotension, decreased thermoregulation, possible penile prolapse
Can Benzodiazepines be used for premedication?They are unreliable on their own in healthy animals but can be used in combination with other drugs
How are Alpha 2 agonists administered usually?Often IM and combined with ketamine/ telazol
Should injection anesthesia be used for prolonged procedures?No. Use inhalants!
During recovery what can occur causing respiratory distress?Laryngeospasm
Why do we separate pigs during recovery?Cannibalism
A combo of Azaperone and Ketamine may be used by itself or with which other drugs?Butorphanol or midazolam
Which analgesics (other than opioids) can be used?NSAIDs
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Ruminants

Question Answer
Due to their anatomy what are some risks associated with anesthesia?Bloat, regurgitation, and aspiration pneumonia
Why are many procedures done with sedatives and local anesthetics?Economically beneficial
Fasting decreases the risk of what?Tympany and regurgitation
How long should food be withheld from adult cattle?18-24 hours
How long should food be withheld from small ruminants?12-18 hours
How long should food be withheld from young animals?2-4 hours. Do not withhold water
Where should catheters be placed?Jugular vein
Which is the most frequently used sedative in ruminants?Xylazine
Which species is most sensitive to xylazine?Goats
Which route is recommended for administration of alpha 2s?IM when possible
Which alpha-2 is preferred in pregnant cattle?Detomidine
What may benzodiazepines cause in ruminants?Ataxia and excitement. Do not use by themselves
Why is atropine not used in ruminants?Quick breakdown leads to higher and more frequent doses
What can be used to antagonize alpha 2s?Tolazoline or atipamizole
What is in a trip drip?catamite, xylazine, and guifenesin
What combination is usually used for small ruminants?Ketamine + Benzodiazepine
Why should ET tubes be used during inhalant anesthesia?Protect airway from regurgitation
What does loss of palpebral reflex mean?Anesthetic plane is light
When should you extubate?When a strong swallowing reflex has returned.
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Camelids

Question Answer
Why is catheterization difficult?Thick skin, venous valves, dense wool, no prominent jugular groove
How long should camelids be fasted?12-24 hours
Who needs higher sedative doses, llamas or alpacas?Alpacas
Which is the most frequently used induction agent?Ketamine (IM)
What needs special attention during maintenance?Eyes! apply ointment and monitor for corneal damage
Why should heads be kept at a high position and nasal decongestants be used during recovery?Obligate nasal breathers
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Horses

Question Answer
Why is it preferred to use sedation in horses?They have a comparatively high risk of associated with anesthesia
Is the risk decreased if the animal is ASA 1 or 2?No
Which drug decreases the death rate by 50%?Acepromazine
What are some common cardiac findings during a preanesthetic assessment? AV Blocks, atrial fibrillation, tachyarrhythmia, murmurs
What are some common respiratory findings during a preanesthetic assessment?COPD
Which kind of catheter placement has higher risk of air embolism?Antegrade
Which sedative may cause penile prolapse?Acepromazine
Which are the most reliable sedatives to use?Alpha 2 agonists
What are some side effects of Alpha 2s?CV, GIT, Diuresis, hyperglycemia, and uterine contraction
What are the benefits of combining Alpha 2s with opioids?Synergistic, reduced response to stimulation
What should Benzodiazepines not be used on?Adult, Standing horse
What should be used to antagonize Benzodiazepines?flumenazil, sarmazenil
When can you use opioids?Combined with a sedative or in cases of strong pain or very young patients
What is the best choice of drugs for a young foal?Midazolam and Butorphanol IV
When should you use CRIs?For prolonged interventions
Why won't severely distressed animals sedate?Catecholamines
What can happen with prolonged recumbency?V/Q mismatch and impaired perfusion
When should patients be nasogastric tubed?Patient has colic or wasn't fasted
What is the main anesthesia induction agent in equines?Ketamine
Which route can be thiopental be administered?IV only
Which medication may cause behavioral response and hypoventilation nut good recovery?Propofol
Which method of maintenance is better for short intervention?TIVA
Which method of maintenance is easier to adjust?Inhalants
Which inhalants are usually used?Isoflourane or Sevoflourane
What are potentially life threatening values?HR<18, MAP<60, RR<4 breaths
What are the most frequent complications?Hypotension, Hypoxemia, and Hypercapnia
memorize

Small Animals

Question Answer
What is the longest acting sedative?Acepromazine
Should you give acepromazine to a patient with von Wilebrand's Disease?No. It impairs thrombocyte aggregation
In which patients can benzodiazepines be used for sedation?Geriatric , pediatric, or severely ill
What additional effect might you see when using benzodiazepines in a cat?Appetite stimulation
Who can Alpha 2s be used on?Healthy animals
Side effects of Alpha 2s with regard to the Cardiovascular system?sinus bradycardia, and AV blocks
What is xylazine used for in cats?emesis. not effective sedative
Which kind of opioid should be used with painful animals?pure mu agonists
Which 2 drugs should you avoid/not give IV due to histamine release?Morphine and meperidine
Which opioid can be administered effectively via sublingual route in cats?Buprenorphine
Which opioid is not often used in cats due to its excitement and dysphoria side effects?Morphine
How long after administering thiopental can you intubate?30 seconds
What may thiopental lead to in cats?arrythmias and respiratory depression
What is important to do when giving propofol?inject slowly and have and ET tube and oxygen available
Which drug should repeated use in cats be avoided due to oxidative injury/heinz body anemia?Propofol
What is important to know when using alfaxalone?always use a premedication and inject slowly
Which route is ketamine usually given for cats?IM
Which drugs may be considered for cardiac patients?Acepromazine, benzodiazepines, opioids
Which drugs are contraindicated in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy?Alpha 2s
Which arrhythmias must be treated before surgery?Tachyarrhythmias
What should you do with anemic patients?Give oxygen
Which lower airway diseases can postpone procedures?Pneumonia, lung contusions, pulmonary edema, pneumo-/hydro-/pyothorax,
If the thorax is opened during surgery what needs to be done?Artificial ventilation
Which drugs shouldn't be used in patients with liver disease?Acepromazine, thiopental, halothane, ketamine
Anesthesia can decrease renal blood flow by...?40%
Which drugs shouldn't be used in patients with kidney disease?Phenothiazines, barbiturates, ketamine, NSAIDs
What is contraindicated in cats with urethral obstruction?Alpha 2s
When can ketamine be used for cats with urethral obstruction?acute blockage with functioning kidneys
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A patient comes in with GDV, what should you do?: Stabilize first!
Question Answer
Which drugs shouldn't be used in patients with GDV?N2O, alpha 2s, propofol, acepromazine
Why do we not want to compress jugular vein, intubate, or stress patients with head trauma?Increases intracranial pressure
Which drugs shouldn't be used in patients with neuro disease?acepromazine and ketamine
Why is analgesia hard in cases of C-sections?Almost all analgesics cross the placental barrier
What is notable about complications is pediatric patients?Prone to hypothermia
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