Specialties and pathologies of eyes

tigrebright's version from 2015-11-01 00:56

Section 1

Question Answer
ophthalmologisttreats all diseases and disorders of the eyes
optometristprovides primary eye care; diagnosing, measuring accuracy of vision
opticiandesigns, fits and dispenses lenses for vision correction
ptosisdrooping of the upper eyelid; usually due to paralysis
chalazioncyst on upper eyelid caused by obstruction in a sebaceous gland
ectropioneversion of edge of an eyelid
eversionturning outward
entropionthe inversion of the edge of an eyelid
inversionturning inward
hordeolumstye; pus-filled,painful lesion on the eyelid; from an acute infection in the sebaceous gland
periorbital edemaswelling of the tissues surrounding the eye or eyes

Section 2

Question Answer
conjunctivitispinkeye; inflammation of the conjuctiva
dacryoadenitisinflammation of the lacrimal gland
subconjunctival hemorrhagebleeding between the conjunctiva and the sclera
xerophthalmiadry eye; drying of eye surfaces
uvetitisinflammation of the uvea
iritisinflammation of the iris; structures in front of the eye
corneal abrasioninjury to the outer layers of the cornea
corneal ulcerpitting of the cornea caused by infection or injury
diabetic retinopathydamage to the retina as a complication of uncontrolled diabetes
keratitisinflammation of the cornea
scleritisinflammation of the sclera

Section 3

Question Answer
anisocoriawhen the pupils are unequal in size; congenital or by injury
cataractloss of transparency of the lens
floatersparticles of cellular debris that float in the vitreous humor and cast shadows on the retina
photopsiathe presence of what appears to be flashes of light
miosiscontraction of the pupil
mydriasisdilation of the pupil
nystagmusinvoluntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball
papilledemachocked disk; swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye through the optic disk
retinal detachmentthe separation of some or all of the light-sensitive retina from the choroid
retinitis pigmentosaprogressive degeneration of the retina that affects night and peripheral vision

Section 4

Question Answer
glaucomaa group of diseases characterized by increased intraoccular pressure that causes damage to the retinal nerve fibers and the optic nerve
open-angle glaucomachronic glaucoma; most common; the trabecular meshwork becomes blocked
closed-angle glaucomaacute glaucoma; the opening between the cornea and iris narrows so that fluid cannot reach the trabecular meshwork
macular degenerationgradually progressive condition in which the macula at the center of the retina is damaged; loss of central but not total blindness
age-related macular degenerationleading cause of blindness in those over 60
dry macular degenerationcaused by slow deterioration of the cells in the macula
wet macular degenerationdamage to the macula caused by the formation of new blood vessels that produce small hemorrhages
diplopiadouble vision; the perception of two images of a single object
hemianopiablindness in one half of the visual field
monochromatismcolor blindness
nyctalopianight blindness
photophobiaexcessive sensitivity to light
presbyopiacommon changes in the eye due to aging
strabismusa squint; the eyes point in different directions or are not aligned correctly
esotropiacross eyes; inward
exotropiawall eye; outward

Section 5

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