Specialized cells, levels of organization, types of tissues, stem cells
red blood cells carries oxygen in the blood, contains hemoglobin, also carbon dioxide. cells are smooth and can pass thru blood vessels
skin cells covers the outside of body to protect cells inside, to reduce water loss. layers of skin fit together tightly
bone cells collect calcium from food, allow growth and repair of bones. build up bone around themselves, creates bodys skeleton
muscle cells can contract, which makes fibres shorter and causes bones to move. arranged in bundles, called muscle fibres.
sperm cells able to move indepently, carrys dna from male parent to join egg cell (female parent)
fat cells how the cell stores chemical energy. has large vacuole to store fat molecules.
white blood cells can move like amoeba to engulf bacteria, fights infection. no regular structure
nerve cells conducts electrical impulses to coordinate body activity. long thin branches.
first step atom
2nd step molecule or compound
3rd step organelle
4th step cell
5th step tissue
6th step organ
7th step organ system
8th step organism
organisms need different cells to work together to carry out specific taks
division of work goes from the simple components (cells) to complex systems (organs) that kep organism alive
organelles structure in cell that perform different functions
tissues groups of cells of same type performing specific function
there are four main tissue types nervous, connective, epithlial, muscle
organs are structures composed of different tissue specialized to carry specific functions
organ systems are groups of organs that have same functions
organisms living beings, made up of components working together
cell to tissue to organs to organ systems
nerve cells to nerve tissues to brain to nervous system
cell specialization multicellular organism, collection of different types of cells that do specific jobs.
following formation of a zygote after several rounds of mitosis, cell begins process called cell specialization
epithelial are the tissues that are thin covering, protects organs, lines body cavities, covers surface of body. EX: outer layer of skin, inside mouth and stomach, tissue surronding body organs
connective tissues provides support, holds parts of body together. inner layers of skin (tendons, ligaments, bone, fat tissue, BLOOD)
muscle tissue sheets/bundles of muscle cells that contract to make movement. involuntary like cardiac muscles (heart and smooth muscles (walls of the digestive muscles (heart) and smooth muscles (walls of digestive tract, uterus, bladder, blood vessels and other internal organs. skeletal muscles
nervous tissue communication between all body structures. has ability to generate and conduct electrical signals from brain to spinal cord to the body.
what are stem cells? unspecialized cells that renew themselves through cell division
stem cells begin begin as blank cells without specific tasks, have ability to become specialized.
embryonic stem cells derived from derived from 3-5 days old, BLASTOCYST. cells produce all specialized cells of the body
adult stem cells are specialized cells found found in a tissue or organ that can produce more specialized cells. found in limited areas of the body
embryonic stem cells are fascinating bc they can make diff types of cells in the bdy. called PLURIPOTENT
adult stem cells are MULTIPOTENT, because they can make multiple types of specialized cells, but not all the kinds of cells in the body
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