Specialized cells, levels of organization, types of tissues, stem cells

hasanahatesscience's version from 2015-11-13 00:50

Section 1

Question Answer
red blood cellscarries oxygen in the blood, contains hemoglobin, also carbon dioxide. cells are smooth and can pass thru blood vessels
skin cellscovers the outside of body to protect cells inside, to reduce water loss. layers of skin fit together tightly
bone cellscollect calcium from food, allow growth and repair of bones. build up bone around themselves, creates bodys skeleton
muscle cellscan contract, which makes fibres shorter and causes bones to move. arranged in bundles, called muscle fibres.
sperm cellsable to move indepently, carrys dna from male parent to join egg cell (female parent)
fat cellshow the cell stores chemical energy. has large vacuole to store fat molecules.
white blood cellscan move like amoeba to engulf bacteria, fights infection. no regular structure
nerve cellsconducts electrical impulses to coordinate body activity. long thin branches.

Section 2

Question Answer
first stepatom
2nd stepmolecule or compound
3rd steporganelle
4th stepcell
5th steptissue
6th steporgan
7th steporgan system
8th steporganism

Section 3

Question Answer
organisms need different cellsto work together to carry out specific taks
division of work goes from thesimple components (cells) to complex systems (organs) that kep organism alive
organellesstructure in cell that perform different functions
tissuesgroups of cells of same type performing specific function
there are four main tissue typesnervous, connective, epithlial, muscle
organs arestructures composed of different tissue specialized to carry specific functions
organ systems aregroups of organs that have same functions
organismsliving beings, made up of components working together
cell to tissueto organs to organ systems
nerve cells to nerve tissues to brain to nervous system
cell specializationmulticellular organism, collection of different types of cells that do specific jobs.
following formation of a zygoteafter several rounds of mitosis, cell begins process called cell specialization

Section 4

Question Answer
epithelial are the tissuesthat are thin covering, protects organs, lines body cavities, covers surface of body. EX: outer layer of skin, inside mouth and stomach, tissue surronding body organs
connective tissues provides support, holds parts of body together. inner layers of skin (tendons, ligaments, bone, fat tissue, BLOOD)
muscle tissuesheets/bundles of muscle cells that contract to make movement. involuntary like cardiac muscles (heart and smooth muscles (walls of the digestive muscles (heart) and smooth muscles (walls of digestive tract, uterus, bladder, blood vessels and other internal organs. skeletal muscles
nervous tissuecommunication between all body structures. has ability to generate and conduct electrical signals from brain to spinal cord to the body.

Section 5

Question Answer
what are stem cells?unspecialized cells that renew themselves through cell division
stem cells beginbegin as blank cells without specific tasks, have ability to become specialized.
embryonic stem cells derived fromderived from 3-5 days old, BLASTOCYST. cells produce all specialized cells of the body
adult stem cells are specialized cells foundfound in a tissue or organ that can produce more specialized cells. found in limited areas of the body
embryonic stem cells are fascinating bcthey can make diff types of cells in the bdy. called PLURIPOTENT
adult stem cellsare MULTIPOTENT, because they can make multiple types of specialized cells, but not all the kinds of cells in the body

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