Specialities and pathologies of the skin

tigrebright's version from 2015-11-09 04:00

Section 1

Question Answer
dermatologistskin doctor
plastic surgeonperforms surgical restoration and reconstruction of body structures
cosmetic surgeonsperform surgery usually done for aesthetic rather than medical reasons
acne vulgarischronic inflammatory disease characterized by pustular eruptions of the skin caused by an overproduction of sebum around the hair shaft
vulgarislatin for common
comedononinfected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle
whiteheadcomedo with an obstructed opening
blackheada sebum plug that is exposed to air and becomes oxidizes
sebacious cystclosed sac found just under the skin; contain yellow, fatty material; usually found on face, neck or trunk
seborrheaoveractivity of the sebaceous gland that results in in the production of an excess amouont of sebum
seborrheic dermatitisinflammation sometimes resulting from from seborrhea that causes scaling and itching of the upper layers of the skin and scalp
excessive dandruff; cradle capa form of seborrheic dermatitis
seborrheic keratosisbenign skin growth that has a waxy or 'pasted-on' look.they vary in color from light tan to black

Section 2

Question Answer
anhidrosisabnormal condition of lacking sweat in response to head
diaphoresisprofuse sweating
heat rashprickly heat; intensely itchy rash caused by blockage of sweat glands by bacteria and dead cells
hyperhidrosisexcessive sweating in one area or over the whole body
sleep hyperhidrosisnight sweats; hyperhidrosis during sleep
folliculitisinflammation of the hair follicles
trichomycosis axillarissuperficial bacterial infection of the hair shafts in areas with extensive sweat glands
hirsutismthe presence of excessive body and facial hair in women
alopeciabaldness; partial or complete loss of hair, most commonly on the scalp
alopecia areataautoimmune disorder that attacks the hair follicles
alopecia totalis; uncommon condition characterized by by the loss of all hair on the scalp
alopecia universalistotal loss of hair on all parts of the body
female pattern baldnesscondition in which the hair thins in the front and sides of the scalp and sometimes on the crown
male pattern baldnesshair-loss pattern in which the hairline recedes from front to back

Section 3

Question Answer
clubbingthe abnormal curving of the nails that is often accompanied by enlargement of fingertips;usually caused by changes associated with oxygen deficiencies related to coronary or pulmonary disease
koilonychiaspoon nail; malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave
onychiainflammation of the matrix of the nail; often results in the loss of the nail
onychocryptosisingrown toenail;the edges of a toenail curve inward and cut into the skin
onychomycosisfungal infection of the nail
onychophagianail biting or nail eating
paronychiaacute or chronic infection of the skin fold around a nail
age spotssolar lentigines; liver spots; discolorations caused by sun exposure
albinismgenetic condition characterized by a deficiency or the absence of pigment in the skin, hair and iris of the eye;the result of a missing enzyme necessary for production of melanin
cholasmamelasma; mask of pregnancy;pigmentation disorder characterized by brownish spots on the face
vitiligoskin condition resulting from the destruction of of melanocytes; causes irregular patches of white skin

Section 4

Question Answer
contusionan injury to underlying tissues without breaking the skin; characterized by discoloration and pain
ecchymosisbruise; large, irregular are of purplish discoloration due to bleeding under the skin
purpuraappearance of multiple purple discolorations on the skin caused by bleeding under the skin
petechiaevery small. pinpoint hemorrhages less than 2 mm in diameter;sometimes result from high fever
hematomaswelling of clotted blood trapped in the tissues; the body eventually reabsorbs this blood
lesionpathological change of the tissues due to disease or injury
crustscab; a collection of dried serum and cellular debris
erosionwearing away a surface, such as the epidermis of the skin
maculediscolored flat spot less than 1 cm in diameter;examples are freckles,
nodulea solid, raised skin lesion larger than .05 cm in diameter and deeper than a papule
papulesmall, raised red lesion that less than .05 cm in diameter and does not contain pus; ex small pimples and insect bites
plaquea scaly, solid raised area of closely spaced papules; such as the lesions of psoriasis
scalesflakes or dry patches made up of excess dead epidermal cells
verrucaewarts; small, hard skin lesions caused by the human papillovavirus
plantar wartsverrucae that develop on the sole of the foot
whealwelt;small bump that itches

Section 5

Question Answer
abscessa closed pocket containing pus that is caused by a bacterial infection
purulentproducing or containing pus
exudatea fluid, such as pus, that leaks out of an infected wound
cystabnormal sac containing gas, fluid, or a semisolid material
pustulepimple; a small, circumscribed lesion containing pus.
circumscribedcontained within a limited area
vesiclesmall blister, less than .5 cm in diameter containing watery fluid
bullalarge blister usually more than .5 cm in diameter
abrasioninjury where superficial layers of skin are scraped or rubbed away
fissuregroove or crack-like break in the skin
lacerationtorn or jagged wound
pressure soredecubitus ulcer; bed sore, open ulcerated wound caused by prolonged pressure on an area of skin
puncture wounddeep hole made by a sharp object; carries a high risk for infection
needlestick injuryan accidental puncture wound caused by a used hypodermic needle
ulceropen lesion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss around the edges

Section 6

Question Answer
birthmarkmole or blemish on the skin present at birth or shortly thereafter
pigmented birthmarksirregularities in skin color
vascular birthmarkscaused by blood vessels near the skin's surface
capillary hemangiomastrawberry birthmark; a soft, raised, pink or red vascular birthmark
port-wine stainflat vascular birthmark made up of dilated blood capillaries, creating a large, reddish-purple discoloration on the face or neck
dermatitisinflammation of the skin; usually includes redness, swelling and itching
contact dermatitisa localized allergic response caused by contact with an irritant
eczemaatopic dermatitis; a form of persistent or recurring dermatitis usually characterized by redness, itching and dryness; possible blistering, cracking, oozing or bleeding
exfoliative dermatitiswide-spread scaling of the skin; often accompanied by pruritus, erythroderma and hair loss
pruritusitching; associated with most forms of dermatitis