Special senses

ilm1993's version from 2018-04-03 23:30


Question Answer
Chemical tastestaste and olfaction


Question Answer
4 basic tastessaltiness, sourness, sweetness, and bitterness
Major organstongue , palate, pharynx, and epiglottis
Papillaesmall projections
Papillae containtaste buds
Action potentialsCalcium ions enter the cell causing the release of transmitters to activate the sensory axon
The conversion of a stimulus into an electrical response is calledtransduction
Cranial nerves involved in taste6,9, 10
Ageusialoss in taste


Question Answer
smells may also be a means of communicationPheromones
we smell with a small layer of epithelial cells that line the nasal cavity called olfactoryepithelium
ciliaactivate the transduction process
What cranial nerve is associated with smell?olfactory
Binding of odorants to specific membrane receptors open calcium channels followed by the opening of chloride channels which leads todepolarization and a receptor potential
glomerulusthe site where 25,000 axons from receptor cells terminate on the dendrites of second order cells
The olfactory tract isthe only special sensory pathway that projects directly into primitive regions of cortex before synapsing in the thalamus
The loss of the sense of smell is calledAnosmia

Vision anatomy

Question Answer
pupilopening that allows light into the eye
corneatransparent covering, performs most of the eye’s refraction
aqueous humorfluid inside behind the cornea
vitreous humorfluid inside the eye
sclerawhite of the eye
optic nerve (cranial nerve II)carries axons from the retina and exits the eye from the back
retinaback surface of the inside of the eye, contains photo receptors as well as blood vessels
optic disc - where blood vessels originateno light sensation can occur here, no photoreceptors here
maculathe part of the retina for central vision - no large blood vessels
lensfocuses images, divides eye into two compartments -vitreous humor behind lens

Microscopic anatomy of the retina

Question Answer
The most direct pathway for visual information isPhotoreceptor to bipolar cells to ganglion cells
The only light sensitive cells in the retina arethe photoreceptor cells
Ganglion cellsare the only output cells from the retina