Spatial Inequality 10A

icer215's version from 2016-04-23 03:08

Section 1

Question Answer
Residential Segregation The phenomenon of two or more groups of people separate into different neighborhoods Result in negative socioeconomic outcomes for minority groups
Three trends of segregationRacial, Income, Combined
RacialBlacks are most segregated racial group in United States Hispanics are second
Incomepoor is more isolated and live in the suburbs or central cities
Combined more than half of all low-income working families are racial minorities
Environmental Justice A social movement in the United States People that value the fair distribution of environmental benefits and problems Regardless of race, color, and financial power, people have right to receive high level of environmental protection
The United States Environmental Protection Agency environmental justice as “the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, sex, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies”
Effect on minoritiesthey have fewer economic alternatives and live in rural areas, they are more subjected to hazards from the environment including health risks and excluded from the environmental policy setting/decisions
Aspects of Social Stratificationa system that ranks members in hierarchy There is unequal distribution of reward/status between members
Class is divided intoUpper class has power and high status Usually those that have inherited wealth Recognized by one’s family name Usually prestigious education
Social reproductionthose that have more financial stability and part of dominant classes have better education (inequality between people)

Section 2

Question Answer
People in the upper classreceive privileged opportunities than others
New moneymakes up about 15% of the population and their wealth, status, and power is not inherited but rather earned People’s wealth has been around for around a generation or two
Middle classaround 34% of the population People in middle class have professional jobs à source of money Usually their jobs include doctors, lawyers, professors, etc.
Working classaround 30% of the population May get good education, but mostly vocational/technical training Their jobs include electrician, factory worker, truck driver, police officers, etc.
Working pooraround 20% of the population People in this class have a low educational level Work in minimum wage jobs Not much job security Poverty level Difficult to meet one’s basic needs for: Food, clothing, and shelter
Intergenerational mobilityA change in social position that happens over multiple generations
Intragenerational mobilityA change in social position that happens during one’s lifetime
Downward mobilityDownward movement of one’s social level
Upward mobilityUpward movement of one’s social level
MeritocracyA political philosophy Describes that people’s success primarily depends on their: Talents Efforts Ability
PovertyRelative and absolute

Section 3

Question Answer
Relative povertyThose people that do not meet the needs compared to most Americans that live decently due to low income
Absolute povertyThose people that lack minimum food and shelter necessary to meet the basic needs
Social exclusion People are systemically blocked from normally available rights, opportunities, and resources Including housing, employment, healthcare, and more
Health DisparitiesDescribes the difference between group of people that affect one’s health
Ethnic minorities and people living in rural areasusually have less income, linguistic barriers, and lack of education, transportation, insurance and are more prone to diseases while unable to access health care Higher rates of cardiovascular diseases, HIV/AIDS Higher mortality rate of infants
Women, children, elderly, and those with disabilitiesusually have dual responsibilities as careers and mothers à sometimes having to choose one or the other puts one in poverty, difficult to access health and education services
Children, elderly, and people with disabilities are typically depended on family members or friends thus they have difficult times accessing health and education services

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