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Some genane stuff

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olola's version from 2016-12-01 01:43

Section 1

Question Answer
adverse effect of Diazepamthrombophlebitis
induction IV dose of Diazepam for general anesthesia0.3-0.5 mg/kg
is Diazepam water soluble or lipid soluble?WATER INSOLUBLE, but solubilized in propylene glycol
is Midazolam water soluble or lipid soluble?water soluble, but BECOMES lipid soluble and passes BBB once in body and has a rapid onset
advantages of midazolam over diazepamMidazolam has rapid absorption from IM and rectal routes, mostly inactive metabolites, and non-irritating to veins
_____ inhibit biotransformation of Midazolam, and may cause oversedationCimetidine & Erythromycin.... use Flumazenil to undo this
short-acting benzodiazepine used orallyTriazolam
fast-acting benzodiazepine used as a premedicantLorazepam
are opioids emetic or anti-emetic?emetic, by stimulating medullary chemoreceptors- also antitussive
interaction of Meperidine/Demerol with ____ causes adverse effectsMAOIs
Opioid of choice for total IV anesthesia in outpatient setting (not prone to accumulate following continuous infusion)Alfentanil
5-10x more potent than fentanyl, more rapid recovery after prolonged IV useSufenanil
Opioid agonist-antagonists, syntheticPentazocine
what alcohol is used as a general anesthetic?Chloral hydrate, IV used in pediatric dentistry (in combo with others)
Etomidate?IV gen anesthetic
nonhalogenated inorganic gasnitrous oxide
halogenated volatile liquidsEther, Halothane, Enflurane, Isoflurane, Desflurane, Sevoflurane
want minimal or high biotransformation for a general anesthetic?minimal to none
blood/gas partition coefficient of nitrous oxide,Low (0.47), poorly soluble in blood, so rapid induction and recovery
MAC of nitrous oxide?MAC=100% (low potency)
nitrous oxide is not given greater than ___% concentration, in dentistry we use ___%70%, dentistry uses 20-50% for conscious sedation and analgesia
treatment for diffusion hypoxia caused by nitrous oxide100% oxide for 5 min
adverse effects include decreased LH (impairs fertility), and oxidizes cobalt in vitamin b12 (inactivates methionine synthase)nitrous oxide
MAC of halothane?MAC=0.75% (very potent!)
blood/gas partition coefficient of halothane?2.3, slower induction/recovery
sensitizes the myocardium to catecholaminesHalothane, can cause arrhythmias
delayed hepatotoxicity associated with?Halothane
May breakdown in soda lime CO2 traps and make toxic productsSevoflurane
can end up forming Antigen-Antibody complexes (haptene) that target liver tissueHalothane
Alteration of Liver function is a more serious concern with what general anesthetic agent?Halothane
_____ ____ is the condition when Ca is not taken up from sarcoplasmic reticulum due to drugs such as halothane or some muscle relaxantsMalignant Hyperthermia
lower solubility in blood = ______ induction/ recoveryfaster
______ (adjunct drug to GA) given as pre-op to dec salivation, laryngospasm, and reflex brachycardia; Dec effects of vagus nerve on the heartAtropine
This halogenated GA agent has rapid induction and recovery, but because it is an irritant its use is limited. (also has low potency)Desflurane
This GA agent is similar to halothane with regard to potency and resp effects (moderate depression, increased rate), but differs in that high does relax skeletal muscle and has fewer hepatic effectsIsoflurane
T/F: Halothane is a poor analgesicTrue (usually used with N2O or opioid analgesics)
An agent with high lipid solubility would have _____ (high/low) MAC and _____ (high/low) potencylow MAC, High potency
This halogenated GA agent has rapid induction and recovery and is not an irritant, but can release toxic fluoride.... may breakdown in soda lime CO2 traps and make toxic products, and is a suitable alternative to halothane for children.Sevoflurane
_______ deficiency, which can be caused by chronic exposure to N2O, is associated with degenerative changes in CNS, neuropathy, and altered hematopoietic tissuesMethionine
T/F: Most general anesthetics decrease peripheral resistance and Blood pressure except for HalothaneFalse (except for N2O)
T/F: Halothane is safe for use with Malignant Hyperthermia patientsfalse
All inhalation general anesthetic agents are _______ volatile liquids except for ______ _____ which is inorganichalogenated; nitrous oxide
T/F: Nitrous Oxide is safe for use with Malignant Hyperthermia patientstrue
T/F: All general anesthetics depress myocardial activity, but halogenated agents produce greater effectstrue
How are most general anesthetics administered?Inhalation (volatile liquids such as halothane)
General anesthetics have what effect on renal blood flow?Decrease (leading to transient kidney impairment)
What is the antidote treatment given for malignant hyperthermia?Dantrolene
T/F: Most general anesthetics decrease peripheral resistance and blood pressureTrue (exception is Nitrous Oxide)
Methoxyflurane was listed as an example of a general anesthetic agent with a ______ MAC (high/low)LOW (which means it is super potent; not used as much any more because of high amounts of fluoride )
Use of ________ may decrease fertility to a decrease in what hormone?Nitrous Oxide; Luteinizing Hormone
T/F: Nitrous oxide is contraindicated in some CVD patientsTrue (causes mild myocardial depression)
____ _____ is the guy that developed technique to administer ETHER for tooth extraction and surgery; and is considered the ‘First Anesthesiologist’William Morton
___ ____ is the guy that used Nitrous Oxide for the 1st time for tooth extractionHorace Wells
The blood concentration of a volatile GA agent can be calculated by ... [GA agent in inhaled air] * ____ _____Partition Coefficient
memorize

Section 2