Solubility rules

o1234567889q's version from 2017-11-04 20:41


Salts containing Group I elements (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, Rb+) are soluble . There are few exceptions to this rule. Salts containing the ammonium ion (NH4+) are also soluble.
Salts containing nitrate ion (NO3-) are generally soluble.
Salts containing Cl -, Br -, or I - are generally soluble. Important exceptions to this rule are halide salts of Ag+, Pb2+, and (Hg2)2+. Thus, AgCl, PbBr2, and Hg2Cl2 are insoluble.
Most silver salts are insoluble. AgNO3 and Ag(C2H3O2) are common soluble salts of silver; virtually all others are insoluble.
Most sulfate salts are soluble. Important exceptions to this rule include CaSO4, BaSO4, PbSO4, Ag2SO4 and SrSO4 .
Most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble. Hydroxide salts of Group I elements are soluble. Hydroxide salts of Group II elements (Ca, Sr, and Ba) are slightly soluble. Hydroxide salts of transition metals and Al3+ are insoluble. Thus, Fe(OH)3, Al(OH)3, Co(OH)2 are not soluble.
Most sulfides of transition metals are highly insoluble, including CdS, FeS, ZnS, and Ag2S. Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and lead sulfides are also insoluble.
Carbonates are frequently insoluble. Group II carbonates (CaCO3, SrCO3, and BaCO‚Äč3) are insoluble, as are FeCO3 and PbCO3.
Chromates are frequently insoluble. Examples include PbCrO4 and BaCrO4.
Phosphates such as Ca3(PO4)2 and Ag3PO4 are frequently insoluble.
Fluorides such as BaF2, MgF2, and PbF2 are frequently insoluble.