Sodium and Potassium Imbalances

jchavez2292's version from 2017-08-24 03:39

Section 1

Question Answer
Signs/Symptoms of HypOnatremiadry mucous membranes, orthostatic hypotension, lethargy, weakness, poor skin turgor, tachycardia, muscle cramps, twitching, dizziness, fatigue, headache, confusion
Causes of Hyponatremiadiuretics & laxatives, GI fluid loss, CHF, Cirrhosis, Nephrosis, SIADH, Nasogastric Suctioning, Hypoaldosteronism, diarrhea, too much water intake (water intoxication)
Drugs that cause HypOnatremiaAnticoagulant; anticonvulsant; antidiabetes, antineoplastics, antipsychotics, diuretics, sedatives
Signs/Symptoms of HypERnatremiaThrist,furry tongue, sticky mucous membrane, dry mouth, lethargy, irritability, seizures, hallucinations, hyperpyrexia, lethargy, confusion, and possibly seizures
Causes of Hypernatremiaexcessive water loss via GI, lungs or skin, Hyperaldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, DIabetes Insipidus, Renal Failure, Heat Stroke, tube feeding or inappropriate fluid administration
Drugs that cause HypernatremiaAntacids w/sodium bicarbonate, antibiotics (Timentin); Salt tablets; IV sodium chloride preparations, sodium bicard injections given during cardiac arrest
Memory jogger for HypERnatremia isSALT: S=skin flushed; A= agitation; L=low grade fever; T=thirst

Section 2

Question Answer
Disorders that's associated with HypOkalemiahepatic disease; hyperaldosteronism; acute alcoholism; Heart Failure; Malabsorption Syndrome; Nephritis; Bartter Syndrome; Acute Leukemia; Cushing Syndrome
Causes of HypokalemiaDiuretics, Diarrhea, Vomiting, prolongedGastric Suctioning, IV therapy without potassium supplementation, potassium also lost through the patient's burn wounds
Signs/Symptoms of HypOkalemiafatigue, weak thready pulse, muscle weakness, shallow resp, decreased GI motility, dysrhythmias, anorexia, flat T waves & U wave, Paresthesia, leg cramps, cardiac dysrhythmias (premature ventricular contractions), decreased reflexes
Danger Signs of HypOkalemiaarrhythmias, cardiac arrest, digoxin toxicity, muscle paralysis, paralytic ileus, respiratory arrest
Memory Jogger for HypokalemiaSUCTION: S= skeletal muscle weakness; U=U-wave; C=constipation; T=toxic effects of Digoxin; I-irregular, weak thready pulse, O=orthostatic hypotension, N=Numbness Paresthesia
Drugs that cause hypokalemiaAdrenergic (albuterol & epinephrine); Antibiotics (amphotericin B, Carbenidlin & Gentamicin); Cisplatin; Corticosteroids; Diuretics (Furosemide & Thiazide); Insulin; Laxative
Foods high in potassiumbake potato, cantalope
Oral potassium isunpleasant taste, irritating to the GI tract

Section 3

Question Answer
Drugs that cause HypERkalemiaACE inhibitors, Beta Blockers, Chemotherapeutic, Digoxin, Heparin, Potassium Sparing Diuretics, NSAIDs
Signs/Symptoms of HyperkalemiaAbdominal cramping, diarrhea, bradycardia, cardiac dysrhythmias and arrest, Tall T-wave, dysrhythmias, irregular pulse, muscle weakness, muscle weakness cramping paralysis
Causes of HypERkalemiaOliguria, Renal Failure, Addison's Disease, Multiple Blood Transfusion, adrenocortical insufficiency, massive deep muscle injury (electrical burn) with large amounts of potassium released from damaged cells
Memory Jogger for HypERkalemia CBIGKD
C=calcium gluconate; B=bicarbonate; I=insulin; G=glucose; K=kayexalate; D=dialysis
M=Muscle cramps U=urine abnormalities R= Respiratory distress D=Decreased cardiac contractility E=EKG Changes R= Reflexes
ECG will show what for Hyperkalemiaprolonged PR, Widenend QRS & Tall T-wave

Section 4

HypOcalcemia (same relationship to magnesium (carlos like maria and hate phosphate)
CATS =convulsions, A=arrhythmias, T=tetany, S=stridor and spasms
CRAMPS= C=Confusion, R=Reflexes hyperactive, A=arrhythmias (prolonged QT interval & ST interval), M=muscle spasms (calves, feet, tetany, seizures), P=postive trousseu's (see this before Chvosteks signs or before tetany), S= signs of Chvostek's (nerve hyper excitability of the facial nerves)
CHIM PANZES C=Calcium supplementation, H=hyperparathyroidism (high parathyroid hormone causes too much calcium to be released into the blood), L=latrogenic, immobilization,M=multiple myeloma, milk-alkali syndrome, medication (lithium), P=parathyroid hyperplasia or adenoma, A=alcohol, N=Neoplasm (breast cancer, lung cancer), Z=zollinger elision syndrome, E=Excessive vitamin D, E=excessive Vit A, S=Sarcoidosis
High CAL= H=yperparathyroidism (high parathyroid hormone causes too much calcium to be released into the blood), I=Increased intake of calcium, G=Glucocorticoids usage (suppresses calcium absorption which leaves more calcium in the blood), H= Hyperthyroidism, C= Calcium excretion decreased with Thiazide* diuretics & renal failure, cancer of the bones,
A=Adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s Disease), L=Lithium usage (affects the parathyroid and causes phosphate to decrease and calcium to increase)

Section 5

HypOmagnesemia (Carlos like Maria)
Dumb Blonde Heiressess Running
D=dysphagia, B=BP high hypertension, H=High heart rate (tachycardia), R=Reflexes (secondary to concurrent hypocalcemia, increased neuromuscular activity=cramps, tremors, hyperreflexia and positive trousseau & Chvostek signs)
Low "everything" (x5) L= * energy low (ever decreasing form drowsy to lethargic to coma) *Low BP (hypotension), *low HR (bradycardia), Low RR (bradypnea), Low reflexes (DTR)
V=vasodilation, D=diaphoresis, S=Skeletal muscle weakness