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Sociology Lesson 2

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sweatyav's version from 2016-12-17 20:18

Section

Question Answer
Sociologist use _____ to test theories.research
Sociological research involves the systematic collection and analysis of information for the purpose of?Testing or generating sociological theories.
Scientific research necessitates the identification of variables (i.e. cintrols) and the formation of a ______ in order to test theories.hypothesis
A variable is a concept whose value?Changes from case to case.
A dependent variable (also called the variable of interest or the outcome measure) is a variable whose________________________.value is believed to depend upon or to be caused by another variable.
An independent variable (also called explanatory variable or predictor variable) is a variable that ____________________________.causes or produces change in the value of another (often dependent) variable.
A hypothesis is?A statement of the expected relationship between two or more concepts or variables.
In order fo sociologists to test hypothesis (i.e.,observe the effect of independent variables on a dependent variable) they must?Try to control for all potential causes.
Before research can begin, researchers must first operationalize their variables. To operationalize a variable means?To specify how the variable is to be measured.
In operationalizing variables, we must be concerned with validity; that is?The variable measures precisely and exactly what one intends to measure.
Researchers must also be concerned with the reliability of the variables. Reliability means?Consistency in the measurement of a variable over time. That the variable would yield the same measurement every time the research was repeated.
Sociological research targets _____________.a specific population.
____is the process of selecting a subgroup from the population of interest.Sampling
______is the subgroup of the population from which the researcher will collect data.A sample
_____is a subgroup of the population that is representative of the whole on the aggregate characteristics that are important for the study.A representative sample
What increases the validity and reliability of results?Random sampling helps limit bias when testing hypothesis.
A correlation between variables exist when?A change in one or more variables is associated with a change in another variable.
Correlation can take several forms:positive, perfect positive, negative, perfect negative, and zero correlation.
A______exist between two variables when, in the majority of the cases, they both change together in the same directionpositive correlation
When both variables change in the same direction in every case, this is termed a______perfect positive correlation
A______exists between two variableswhen, in the majority of the cases, the value of one variable decreases as the value of the second increasesnegative correlation
A______exists when in each and every case the increase in the value of one variable is accompanied by a decrease in the value of the other variableperfect negative
_______ exists if an increase in one variable is accompanied in half the cases by an increase in the second variable and in half the cases by a decrease in the second variablecorrelation of zero (independent relationship between variables)
A______relationship is a specific form of a correlation between variables in which one variable brings about the change in the other variable(s)cause and effect
The variable of interest is what is called the______dependent variable
Four main ways or methods in which sociological research is conductedsurveys, experiments, field research, and secondary analysis of existing data
Surveys and experiments are forms of______that emphasize the statistical analysis of numerical dataquantitative research
Field research is a form of________that emphasizes uncovering the subject meanings that guide and underlie social interaction as well as the types, forms, and structuring of social interaction itselfqualitative
Secondary analysis of existing data can involve either or both______quantitative and qualitative research
A______is a questionnaire or interview in which people are asked to respond to a series of staements or questionssurvey
_______ are carefully designed and controlled attempts, usually conducted in a lab, to determine the effect of specific variables on a particular dependent variable or upon the behavior and attitudes of the experiments subjectsexperiments
_______ is the main qualitative research method and involves the study of social life in its natural settingfield research
A common form of field research is______, where the researcher systematically observes people while actually joining with them in their activitiesparticipant observation
Sociologist refer to accounts of people in particular settings as______case studies
______involves researchers in the use of data and information that was initially collected by previous researchersSecondary analysis of existing data
The sociological research process proceeds in a systematic fashion by either the______or______deductive model or inductive model
The______begins with a general theory or set of hypothesis and then moves on to the collection of appropriate data to test the theory or hypothesisdeductive model
The______begins with specific observations upon which a theoretical account is then fashioined that accounts for and explains the observations and their meaningsinductive (grounded) model
Main steps in the deductive model of sociological research1. selecting topic, inestigating, framing questions or hypothesis 2. research method 3. collecting info 4. drawing conclusions
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