Sociology Final Ch. 7-9

bividimu's version from 2016-09-24 11:52


Question Answer
Which of the following sociological terms refers to "the recognized violation of cultural norms?"deviance
"Crime" differs from "deviance" in that crime:is a violation of norms enacted into law
Every society regulates the thoughts and behavior of individuals. This process of regulation is called:social control
What concept refers to the formal system that responds to alleged violations of the law using police, courts, and prison officials?the criminal justic system
Biological appraches offer:a very limited understanding of crime
The value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because:most people who cmmit crimes have normal personalites
Read the following four assertions about the social foundation of deviance. Then select the one that is FALSEmost acts that are deviant in one place are deviant everywhere
Emile Durkheim's basic insight is that deviance is:a normal element of social organization
Using Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes the behavior or a low-paid, yet rigidly conforming bank teller?ritualism
In his subcultural theory of deviance, Walter Miller claimed that street criminality is most common among:low-income adults
The basic idea behind labeling theory is that:deviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they do
When friends began to criticize Juan as a "boozer," pushing him out of their social circle, he began to drink even more and became bitter. Juan ended up joining a new group of friends, all of whom are all heavy drinkers. According to Edwin Lemert, this situation illustrates:the onset of secondary deviance
Which of the following illustrates the "medicalization of deviance?"all of the above are correct
Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory links deviance to:the amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage the behavior in question
Travis Hirschi's control theory suggests which of the following categories of people would be most likely to engage in deviance?youngsters who "hang out" waiting for something to happen
According to the social-conflict approach, what a society labels as deviant is based mostly on:patterns of inequality and who has more power
A hate crime is defined as:any crime targeting a member of a minority
Gender figures into the study of deviance because:every society in the world applies stronger normative controls to females than to males
Prostitution is widely regarded as one example of:victimless crime
Criminal statistics gathered by the Federal Bureau of Investigation reflect:offenses known to the police
"Social Stratification" is a concept that refers to:society ranking categories of people in a hierarchy
A caste system is defined as:social stratification based on ascription or birth
The concept "meritocracy" refers to social stratification:based entirely on personal merit
Typically, the degree of status consistency is:a greater in caste systems than in class systems
The sociologist who first described society as "the survival of the fittest" was:Herbert Spencer
According to the Davis-Moore thesis:society must attach enough rewards to important jobs to attract the talent needed to perform these jobs well
According to Karl Marx, differences in wealth and power between the capitalists and proletarians leads to:class conflict
Max Weber considered an individual's social position to be:All of the above are correct
Jill buys a very expensive car to impress her friends. Her puschase is an example of:conspicuous consumption
Evidence suggests that, as the United States moves into the post-industrial phase of economic development, economic inequality is:increasing
Which of the following concepts refers to wages or salary from work, plus earnings from any investments?income
The highest earning 20 percent of all U.S. families receive about what percentage of all income?48 percent
In the United States, the wealthiest 20 person of families own about how much of the country's privately owned wealth?85 percent
Which of the following factors affect social class standing in the United States?all of the above are correct
Comparef to the upper class, the middle class in the United States contains:far more racial and ethnic diversity
In general, people of low class position:all of the above are correct
In general, people in which of the following social classes tend to be less tolerant of controversial behavior such as homosexuality?working class
Read the following four statements about social mobility in the United States, Which statement is NOT true?within a single generation, most social mobility involves jumping from one class level to another rather than making small movements within one class
Which of the following concepts refers to change in social position during a person's lifetime?intragenerational social mobility
Which of the following categories of people are at high risk of being poor>All of the above are correct
The poorest 20 percent of the global population receives only about what share of all global income1
Any one of the richest three people in the world have more wealth than the world's:forty-seven poorest countries
The people of the high-income countries, who represent 22 percent of the world's population, earn about what share of the world's income?84 percent
Which of the following statements about high-income nations is correct?all of the above are correct
A majority (59 percent) of the world's people live in:low-income nations
Compared to poverty in the United States, poverty in low-income nations is:more widespread and severe
The concept "absolute poverty" refers to: a lack of resources that is life-threatening
Of all the people in the world who live in absolute poverty, what share are women?70 percent
The organization Anti-slavery International estimates that about how many men, women, and children live today in conditions that approximate slavery?200 million
A social theorist who contributed to the development of dependency theory by tracing the growth of the capitalist world economy is:Immanuel Wallerstein
According to Immanuel Wallerstein's theory of global capitalism, which nations are at the "core" of the world economy?high-income nations
What is Immanuel Wallerstein's term for the middle-income countries of the world?semiperiphery
With regard to the role of rice nations, dependency theory:claims that rich nations are to blame for global poverty
Over the course of the last century, teh extent of global inrquality has:increased
Where on the planet would you find most high-income nations?mostly in the Northern Hemisphere
Most low-income nations are found in which region of the world?Africa and Asia
Around the world, about how many people suffer from chronic hunger?1 billion
In the poorest countries of the world, roughly half of all children who are born die before reaching the age of:ten
Which of the following ranks among the poorest of the world countries in terms of economic output and quality of life?Niger
Slavery:is found today in a number of low-income nations in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa