Sociology Final Ch. 4-6

lahuveza's version from 2016-04-25 20:15


Question Answer
The process by which people act and react in relation to others, is:social interaction
Which of the following concepts defines who and what we are in relation to others?status
At a given time, you occupy a number of statuses. Together, these form your:status set
Which of the following concepts refers to a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily taken on later in life?ascribed status
Which of the following concepts refers to a status that has very great importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life?master status
Sociologists use which of the following concepts to refer to the behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status?role
A role set refers to a number of roles:attached to a single status
Which of the following concepts refers to conflict among roles corresponding to two or more statuses?role conflict
What is the term for the tension among roles connected to a single status?role strain
Which of the following concepts refers to the process by which people creatively shape their world as they interact?social construction of reality
The Thomas thereom states that:situations defined as real are real in their consequences
Ethnomethodolgy involves:studying the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings
Clues to the fact that another person is lying may be found in the other's:slip of the tongue, trembling voice, and facial expressions
The concept "presentation of self" refers to:efforts to create impressions in the minds of others
According to Erving Goffman, our use of costumes, props, tone of voice, and gestures to convey information to others are all elements of a:performance
"Nonverbal communication" refers to:body movements, gestures, and facial expressions
In what way do men and women typically differ in their use of space?men commonly try to control more space than women
According to Erving Goffman, people usually make efforts to ________ their intentions.idealize
Arlie Hochchild's research shows that many companies:try to control both the behavior and emotions of employees
From a social-conflict point of view, jokes:are often used to make one category of people feel good at the expense of another
What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another?a social group
Charles Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships using the concept:primary group
Which of the following is every society's most important primary group?the family
A secondary group is a social group that:is impersonal and exists in order to accomplish some specific goal
Which of the following concepts reders to group leadership that emphasizes the completion of taks?instrumental leadership
Adrian is a leader who tends to downplay her postition and power, allowing the group to function more or less on its own. Which type of leader is she?laissez-faire leaders
Solomon Asch's research, in which subjects were asked to match lines, showed: that people defined as "leaders" have great power over their subjects
Stanley Milgram's research, in which subjects used a "shock generator," showed that:people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only "legitimate" authority figures, but also ordinary individuals
What is the sociological concept coined by Irving Janis for a narrow understanding of some issue caused by group conformity?groupthink
Which of the following concepts refers to a social group that people use a point of reference in making evaluations of decisions?reference group
Jake is a member of the Bulldogs soccer team. HIs team's main rival is the Tigers and members of his team put down the Tigers all the time. To Jake, the Tigers represent an out-group
What is a triad?a social group with three members
Read the following four statements about social diversity and group dynamics. Which of the statements is FALSE?Heterogeneous groups turn outward
Read the following four statements about social networks. Which ONE statement is typically true of a social network?Networks are "fuzzy" groups containing people we "know of" rather than those we "know"
A maximum-security prison is one example of a:coercive organization
The concept "bureacracy" refers to:an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
Which of the following cecepts refers to the rule of the many by the few?oligarchy
Max Weber argues that formal organizations, while efficient, have the ability to:alienate people within them
Which of the following is NOT one of the principles of McDonaldization?creativity
As bureacracy and computer technology have spread throughout U.S. society, privacyis threatened as never before
Which concept refers to the biological distinction between males and females?sex
One cultural universal is the incest taboo, which is a norm forbiddingsexual relations or marriage between certain relatives
When did the sexual revolution begin?It began in the 1940s and then grew quickly in the late 1960s
Which of the following concepts refers to a person's romantic and emotional attraction to another person?sexual orientation
Sexual attraction to someone of the same sex is called homosexuality
The concept "homophobia" refers to fear of close personal interaction with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual
Elite prostitutes-young, attractive, and well-educated women-are widely referred to ascall girls or escorts
Prostitution is regarded by many people in the United States as a victimless crime
Which one of the following statements about rape is NOT true?in most cases of rape, the victime does not know the attacker
If you were to study the changing meaning of virginity over the last century in our society, you would discover that the norm stating that people remain virgins until marriagehas become weaker
Queer theory is a growing body of knowledge asserting thatthere is a heterosexual bias in U.S. society
Which concept refers to genitals that distinguish females and males?primary sex characteristics
Which concept refers to humans who have some combination of female and male sexual characteristics?intersexual
If you often had the feeling of being "trapped in the wrong body," you might be a transsexual
Comparative research indicates thatalthough sex his a biological function, sexual practices vary from place to place as an element of the culture
The importance of Alfred Kinsey's researcg on sexuality in the United States wasmaking sexuality a focus of scientific study, showing that people were less conventional than most of society thought, and encouraging a greater openness toward sexuality
The effect of the sexual counterrevolution was moe people began choosing to limit their number of sexual partners or not to have sex at all
Survey research on attitudes toward premarital sex tells us thatthe public is more accepting of premarital sex than it was a generation ago
Sexual attraction to people of both sexes is calledbisexuality
Sarah feels little or no sexual attraction to people of either sex. Her sexual orientation is calledasexuality