Sociology Final Ch. 1-3

kibiloka's version from 2015-11-03 20:19


Question Answer
Which discipline defines itself as "the systematic study of human society?"sociology
Peter Berger described using the sociological perspective as seeing the ________ in the ________general; particular
Learning more about sociology helps us to:see the opportunities in our lives, see the constraints in our lives, and be more active participants in society
The term "sociology" was coined in 1838 by:August Comte
Which of the following is a way of understanding the world based on science?positivism
Which of the following phrases best describes the focus of the structural-functional approach?the consequences of social patterns for the operation of society
The recongnized and intended consequences of a social pattern are referred to as:manifest functions
The social-conflict approach draws attention to:patterns of social inequality
The basic idea of the symbolic-interaction appoach is that society is:the reality people construct as they interact with one another
Sociologists use the concept "empirical evidence" to refer to:information people can verify with their senses
Which term refers to "a mental construct that represents some part of the world?"a concept
Two variables are said to display correlation if:change in one causes no change in the other
The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher:must strive to be personally neutral about the outcome of the research
Studying the meaning people attach to their everyday lives is the search for:verstehen or "understanding"
If you have been critizied for "androcentricity" in your research, you have:approached the subject from a male perspective
The method of sociological research best suited to identifying cause-and-effect relationships is:the experiment
Which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionaire or interview?survey
A small number of people used by researchers to represent an entire population is called:a sample
An exagerated description that somebody applies to every person in a category of the population is referred to as: a stereotype
Unlike simple stereotypes, sociological generalizations:do not apply to all individuals in some category, are based on all available facts, and are offered fair-mindedly with an interest in the truth
What concept refers to the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that, together, constitute a people's way of life?culture
As a part of human culture, religion would be an example of:nonmaterial culture
Sociologists define a symbol as:anything that carries a meaning to people who share a culture
Cultural transmission refers to the process of:passing cultural patterns from generation to another
Which of the following most closely conveys the point of the Sapir-Whorf thesis?people perceive the world through the cultural lens of language
Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called:values
Read the list of values below. Which from that list is NOT one of the values central to U.S. culture, as identified by the sociologist Robin Williams?belief in tradition
The cultural values that largely define a culture:are sometimes in conflict with one another
Wrong-doing such as an adult forcing a child to engage in sexual activity is an example of violation our culture's:mores
_________ distinguish between right and wrong; ___________ distinguish between polite and rude.mores; folkways
The distinction between high culture and popular culture is based mostly on:the social standing of the people who display the cultural pattern
The concept "subculture" refers to:cultural patterns that set apart a segment of a society's population
Multiculturalism is defined as:an educational program recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equality of all cultural traditions
The concept "counterculture" refers to:cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held
The concept "cultural lag" refers to the fact that: some cultural elements change more quickly than others
The spread of cultural traits from one society to another is called:diffusion
The concept "ethnocentrism" refers to:judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
The practice of judging any other culture using its own standards is called:cultural relativism
Cultural universals are cultural traits that:are part of every known culture
Culture acts as a constraint on human freedom because:much culture is habit and it repeated again and again, humans cannot create new culture for themselves, and culture discourages change
Which of the following concepts refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture?socialization
The social sciences, including sociology, support the basic claim that:it is human nature to nurture
The Harlow studied the effects of social isolation on rhesus monkeys and found that:monkeys isolated for as little as six months were permanently damaged
Taken together, the cases of Anna and Genie provide strong evidence that:social experience has a crucial role in forming human personality
Human beings' basic drives, or needs, are refelected in Freud's concept of:id
An idea in Freud's thinking that has special importance to sociology is his assertion that:culture demands that individuls become less self-centered
Jean Piget called the level of development at which individuals first use language and other cultural symbols which of the following stages?preoperational stage
The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg's research, showing that:moral reasoning
Carol Gilligan extended Lawrence Kohlberg's research, showing that:girls and boys typically use different standards in assesing situations as right and wrong
George Herbert Mead placed the origin of the self in:social experience
By "taking the role of the other," Mead had in mind:imagining a situation from another person's point of view
When Charles Horton Cooley used the term "looking-glass self," he was referring to the fact that:people see themselves as they think others see them
According to George Herbert Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these important people as:significant others
Which of the following statements comes closest to describing Erik H. Erkison's view of socialization?personality develops over the entire life course in patterned ways
Family is important to the socialization process because:family members are often what Mead called "significant others," families give children social identity in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion, parents greatly affect a child's self-concept
Patterns of socialization vary by class; in child-rearing, lower-class parents stress_________, while well-to-do parents stress ___________.obedience; creativity
When people model themselves after the members of peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in:anticipatory socialization
In her research, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross found that death:is an orderly transition involving specific stages
Which of the following concepts refers to efforts to radically change someone's personality through careful control of the enviroment?resocialization
Which of the following reflects Goffman's description of the resocialization process?stripping away an old identity, then building a new identity