Sociology Chapter 15; Population, Urbanization, and Environment

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Section 1

Question Answer
DemographyThe study of human population.
FertilityThe invidence of childbearing in a country's population.
Crude Birth RateNumber of the live births in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population.
mortalityIncidence of death in a country's population.
Crude Death RateNumber of deaths among infants under one year of age for 1,000 live births in a given year.
Infant Mortality RateNumber of deaths among infants under one year of age for each 1,000 live births in a given year.
Life ExpectancyAverage life span of a country's population.
MigrationMovement of people into and out of a specified territory.
Sex RatioNumber of males for every 100 females in a nation's population.
Age-Sex PyramidGraphic representation of the age and sex of a population.
Demographic Transition TheoryA thesis that links population patterns to a society's level of technological devlopment.
Zero Population GrowthThe rate of reproduction that maintains population at a steady level.

Section 2

Question Answer
Urbanization Concentration of population into cities.
MetropolisLarge city that socially and economically dominates an urban area.
SuburbsUrban areas beyond the political boundaries of a city.
MegalopolisVast urban region containing a number of cities and their surrounding suburbs.

Section 3

Question Answer
GemeinschaftType of social organization in which people are closely tied by kinship and tradition.
GesellschaftType of social organization in which people come together only on the basis of individual self-interest.
Urban EcologyStudy of the link between physical and social dimensions of cities.

Section 4

Question Answer
EcologyStudy of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment.
Natural EnvironmentEarth's surface and other resources necessary to sustain life.
EcosystemInteraction of all living organisms and their natural environment.
Environmental DeficitProfound long-term harm to the natural environment caused by humanity's focus on short-term material affluence.
Rain ForestsRegions of dense forestation, most of which circle the globe close to the equator.
Global warmingRise in Earth's average temperature due to an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Environmental RacismPatterns of development that expose poor people, especially minorities, to environmental hazards.
Ecologically Sustainable CultureWay of life that meets the needs of the present generation without threatening the environmental legacy of future generation.