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SOCIOLOGY CHAPTER 1

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sweatyav's version from 2016-12-17 17:12

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Question Answer
Generally speaking, sociologists have studied societies using three different perspectives:
What are they:
the functionalist, conflict, and symbolic-interactionist perspective
Sociology is the systemic (often scientific) study of human society and social interaction
A society isa large social grouping that occupies the same geographic area and is subject to a common political authority and dominant cultural expectations
Auguste Comte coined the term sociology and believed that the?_________________application of the scientific method to the study of industrial society would allow for the perfection of society.
What two important changes in the social world gave rise to sociology as a field of scientific studyindustrialization and urbanization
industrilaizationthe process by which societies are transformed from agriculture-based economic activity to manufacturing-based economic activity
The most important change brought on by industrialization waspeople no longer labored on the land; they worked in factories
urbanizationthe movement of a societies population from rural areas to cities.
social facts arepatterned ways of behaving, thinking, and feeling.
The ability to see and understand social facts involves the______________________.sociological imagination
who used the term sociological imagination to describe the ability to apply sociological reasoniing and see the links between the personal and the socialC. Wright Mills
An imergent property is________________________________________.an outcome that cannot be explained by reducing it to its smallest unit.
One of the most well-known studies of the influence of social facts on individuals is?Emile Durkheim's study of suicide.
Durkheim theorized that weaknesses in a persons web of social relationships contributed to________________.the liklihood of suicide.
People who were not well integrated experienced what Durkheim called anomie, or_____________________.a condition or situation in which society provides little moral or behavioral guidance to an individual.
A theory is?A set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to explain, describe, and occsionally predict how two or more social phenomena are related.
A theoretical perspective is?A basic overall image or worldview used to organize and understand society.
The sociological perspective involves?Being able to see the general in the particular. This perspective directs one to see the link between the societal or social context (the general) and the behavior of individuals (the particular). C, Wright Mills described this link as the understanding of the relations between personal experiences and the larger society within which we live.
The functionalist perspective views society as?A relatively stable and orderly system composed of interdependent and interrelated parts.
Social structure is made up of the_____________________________________.stable, organized patterns of social relationships and social institutions that exist within a particular group or society.

Social structure provides the context within which we interact with others.
Durkheim theorized the French suicide rate steadily increased due to the?Strains created by the quickening industrialization and urbanization that was transforming the country.
Robert Merton and Talcott Parsons are contemporary functionalist theorists who have further refined the functionalist perspective:Merton distinguished between the manifest functions and latent functions that social institutions serve.
Manifest functions are?The intended, expected, or overtly recognized consequences of an activity or institution.
Latent functions are?Those consequences that are largely unintended and unrecognized.
Social dysfunctions are?The undesirable consequences of an institution or activity for the social system.
The conflict perspective views society as?A composition of groups with clashing interests who engage in a struggle over scarce resources (social and material).
One group tends to have control over a disproportionate amount of valuable social or material resources. (the power to shape societal practices to their advantage)
Karl Marx is credited with first elaborating the conflict perspective. Marx saw society as composed of two main groups the _____________ and the _______________.bourgeoisie , proletariat.
The bourgeoisie, or the capitol class was the class that?Owned the key economic resources in industrial societies ( Marx termed "the means of production")
The proletariat, or working class was composed of?People who owned only their ability to labor, which they sold to the bourgeoisie in order to earn a living.
One key feature of the conflict perspective is the notion that?Conflict leads to change.
Society is characterized by consensus on a common set of?Beliefs, values, and expectations for behavior.
The symbolic-interaction perspection views society as the product of?The everyday interactions of people and groups.
Symbolic-interaction perspective theorist George Herbert Mead explored the?Social influences on the developement of a sense of self.
Symbolic-interaction perspective theorist Charles Horton Cooley whose concept of looking glass self referred to?The way a persons sense of self is based on the imagined reactions of others. (or how we think others see us)
Symbolic-interaction perspective theorist Erving Goffman called his approach to understanding social life?Dramaturgical analysis, suggesting that members of a society are like actors playing out roles on the social stage.
Perspectives are either _______________ or_______________________.macro-level or micro-level theoretical paradigms.
The functionalist and conflict perspectives are both at the?Macro-level.
The macro-level examines social institutions and large scale social processes rather than?Small groups that shape society as a whole.
The symbolic-interaction perspective has a micro-level orientation. The micro-level orientations focus on?The dynamics and meanings of face-to-face interactions between people and small groups.
The functionalist perspective attempts to explain?Social stability.
The conflict perspective attempts to explain?Social change.
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