SOCIOLOGY 112 Lectures

tasnimjaisee's version from 2018-02-02 05:11

Lecture 1

Question Answer
Central tensions in sociologyStructure vs. Agency - Order vs. Conflict - Macro vs. Micro - Equality vs. Inequality - Freedom vs. Constraint
Order and actionIndividual ⬌ Collective & Nonrational ⬍ Rational

Lecture 2

Question Answer
What does structural functionalism focus on?How order is maintained and main sources of stability
3 elements of structural functionalismInterrelatedness - Norm state - All system parts bring things back to normal
What does functionalism focus on?Stability and consensus
Between functionalism, conflict theory and symbolic interactionism: which theory believes societies have interconnected parts that work together?Functionalism
What is the bottom line of functionalism?All parts of society have a function & certain needs
Criticisms of functionalism?Reification of society and social instituitions - Circular reasoning - Cannot explain rapid social change - Implicitly supports political and economic status quo
Conflict Theory's bases around which types of inequality? Unequal distribution of resources & power - varied groups that constantly struggle with each other to dominate society - social problems stem from inequality between groups
Topics of MertonFunctional unity (dysfunctional for minority) - Not all institutions are indispensable - We have dysfunction - Manifest vs. Latent (Uni: education vs. unity)
Criticisms of Conflict Theory?Sides only with people who lack power – sees economic factors as the most important conflict – Focuses too much on the negative aspects of society
What does symbolic interactionism focus on?Individuals consciously act in different social stimulations
What does symbolic interactionism focus on?Individuals consciously act in different social stimulations - how social actors interpret behaviour of others - Meanings given to chaviour and how they're intepreted
What does goffman speak about?Impression management and presentation of self
Explain goffman's region bhaviourfront stage and back stage
Explain front stageindividual's performance which defines situations for those who observes it
Explain backstageclosed off and hidden from audience
Critiques of Symbolic Interactionismover-emphasizes "the individual" (too micro) - fails to theorize the nature of power - concentrates too much on the small-scale, trivial aspects of life (need to focus on underlying circumstances - social world is relatively seen - Doesn't explain social order/change
Functionalist Perspective: Key ideaConsensus - Social Stability
Conflict Perspective: Key ideaPower - Inequality - Conflict
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective: Key ideaSymbolic communication - Social interaction - Subjective meaning
Main Assumption of Functionalist PerspectiveSocial institutions are structured to maintain stability and order in society
Main Assumption of Conflict PerspectiveInstitutions in society promote conflict and inequality between groups of people
Main Assumption of Symbolic Interactionist PerspectiveSociety is structured through everyday interactions and people’s subjective definitions
Explain Feminist TheoriesGendered inequalities - Domination of women is the result of socio-economic and ideological factorrs - Public & private spheres are gendered
What are the goals of feminism?demonstrate the importance of women - reveal that historically women have been subordinate to men - gender equity
Who is Patricia Hill Collins?Black feminish thought: Matrix of domination - Intersecting opressions - complexity of systems of both domination and resistance
Explain Intersectional Theorizinginteraction between systems of oppression - Grew out of writings by Black feminists - Against additive models, argues for relational understanding of interrelated systems of oppression - research focus is traditionally on the most privileged women
Main level analysis of the 4 theoretical traditionsFunc: Macro - Conflict: Macro - Symbol: Micro - Fem: Micro+Macro
What is the image ideal society of functionalismState of equilibrium
What is the image ideal society of conflict theoryElimination of privilege (class privillege)
What is the image ideal society of symbolic interactionismRespect for validity of minority views
What is the image ideal society of feminist theoryElimination of gender equality
Main focus of the 4 theoretical traditionsFunc: Vallues - Conflict: Class inequality - Symbol: Meaning - Fem: Patriarchy

Lecture 3

Question Answer
Define Culture Complex collection of values, beliefs, behaviours, and material objects shared by a group passed on from one generation to the next.
Five defining features of cultureLearned, shared, transmitted, cumulative and human
How is culture learned?Because we are not born with it and we learn it from birth until death. Ex. manners, normative expectations
How is culture shared?Symbols (Thumbs up) - Values (Beauty)
How is culture Transmitted?Forms of languages
What does culture being cumulative mean?Parents socializing children vs. vice versa
What does culture being human mean?Give meaning to communication
Types of cultureMaterial & non-material
Define Material CultureThe tangible artifacts and physical objects found in a given culture
Define Non-material CultureThe intangible and abstract components of a society, including values and norms
Define Valuesbeliefs about ideal goals and behaviours
Define Normscultural rules that outline appropriate behavior, or accepted ways of doing things
Define Sanctionanything that rewards appropriate behaviour or penalizes inappropriate behaviour
Cultural UniversalsCustoms and practices that occur across all societies ex. Marriage age, Food (when is it consumed/how), who lives with who
Define EthnocentrismJudging another culture exclusively by standards of one’s own - View own culture as superior to others
Define Cultural RelativismAppreciating cultures having intrinsic worth & need to evaluate & understood on their own terms - Avoid judging customs before trying to understanding
Define Subculturevalues, norms, folkways or mores set them apart from the mainstream culture, based on race, ethnicity and religion
Define CountercultureStrongly opposes the widely held cultural patterns of the larger ex. population culture jamming
Define Ideal CultureCultural values a majority of the people identify with in a given population
Define Real CulturePractices engaged in by the majority of people in a given society
Define cultural capitalA body of knowledge and interpersonal skills that helps people to get ahead socially
Sociological approaches to culture: FunctionalismCulture plays a part in helping people to meet needs (cultural universals) - Provides social solidarity and consensus
Sociological approaches to culture: Conflict TheoryViews society based on tension and conflict over scarce resources - Those who hold power define and perpetuate a culture’s ideology
Sociological Approaches to Culture: Symbolic interactionismCulture is created and re-created through social interactionism

Lecture 4

Question Answer
Explain biological approachOur actions stem from biological roots
Explain Environmental Approach (nurture)we are products of our socialization - social forces & social environment create human experience
Define Social IsolationDeprived of human contact; limited intellectual capacities - limited experience with love/human interaction - don't grasp language
Sociologists believe that social reality is constructed by?People every time they interact with others.
Define The Social SelfProcess of interaction - Personality is shaped through communication - Role is a behaciour expected for positions of society
Define SocializationPeople learn to become members of society - Starts at birth & continues through life
Define Social interactionsWays which people interact in social settings while recognizing each person's experiences & intentions
The Self is comprised of?Set of learned values and attitudes which develop through social interaction
Define Self-imageConception that one has of oneself
Explain Mead's "I"Spontaneous, creative, impulsive & unpredictable
Explain Mead's "Me"Controls "I", self reflective part of consciousness that thinks about how to behave
Define Significant othersWe want approval from (parents, peers, etc.)
Define Role-takingprocess of mentally assuming the perspective of another
Define Generalized otherthe attitudes, viewpoints and expectations of society that are internalized
Mead’s development of SelfPreparatory Stage, Play stage, Game stage
How old are kids in Preparatory Stage?Birth-3
How old are kids in Play stage?3-5
How old are kids in game stage?Elementary school years
Primary socializationChild learns the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals
Secondary socializationAppropriate behavior as a member of a smaller group within the larger society.
Anticipatory socializationNon-group-members take on values of groups that they aspire to join - Ease their entry into the group and help them interact competently
Reverse SocializationYounger generation transfers knowledge to the older generation.
Cooley's Looking glass selfHow we appear to others - Imagine judgement of that appearance - Develop self through judgement of others
Explain DuBois - Double ConsciousnessRole conflict: Mom & Office job / America & Black American
Define Total instituitionsPeople are isolated from society & supervised by administrative staff - No backstage
What are the characteristics of Total Isolation?Daily life aspects are supervised - Highly standardized enviornment - Rules & Schedules dictate when/where things are done
ResocializationRadically changing personality by controlling enviornment: Mortification of self & New identity formation
Define agents of socializationIndividuals, groups & social instituitions working together to help people become functioning society members
4 primary Agents of SocializationFamily, Peers, Education, Mass media
What are the phases of socialization across the life course?Early adulthood, middle adulthood, late adulthood, death & dying

Lecture 5

Question Answer
Define CrimeBehaviours & actions requiring social control & intervention, codified in law
Define DevianceViolate social norms & evoke negative reaction from others - May or may not be against the law
What was Howard Becker's approach to deviancy?Not the act itself, rather people’s reaction to the act that makes it deviant
Define Informal punishmentMild & may involve raised eyebrows, gossip, ostracism
Define Stigmatizationnegative evaluation because of a perceptible sign that distinguishes a person from others.
Define Formal punishmentResults from people breaking laws, which are norms stipulated and enforced by government bodies.
Define White‑collarCrime illegal acts committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his or her occupation.
Define Street crimesarson, burglary, robbery, assault, and other illegal acts - committed disproportionately by people from lower classes.
Define Interested vs disinterested punishmentBehaviours become constituted as immoral; regulated - Perpetuated through discourse - Affects our perception of crime victims
Define Victimless crimesviolations of the law in which no victim steps forward and is identified
Define Moral panicsExtreme over-response when many people fervently believe that some form of deviance/crime poses profound threat to society’s well-being
7 steps of moral manic Identify problem - Subersion - Simplify - Stigmatize - Stir public outcry - Stamp down - Deviance Amplification
Police-reported crime statistics have two main shortcomingsMuch crime is not reported to the police; victimless crimes - Authorities & public decide which criminal acts to report & ignore
Self-report surveysRespondents asked to report involvement in criminal activities as perpetrators or victims
Victimization surveysSurveys in which people are asked whether they have been victims of crime
Endogenous Factors' Explanations for Declining Crime RatesBigger groups of better trained & equipped law enforcement & correctional officers - Economic conditions favored decrease in crime
Exogenous Factors' Explanations for Declining Crime RatesAging population in canada - Abortion legalization - Collective values
Indigenous people comprised ___ percent of the population4
Indigenous people accounted for ____ percent of people in provincial/territorial prisons and _____ percent of those in federal prisons17 & 23
Factors in overrepresentationPoverty - Street crimes - Discrimination - Colonization
Sociological Approaches to Crime: FunctionalismOne will get caught so rest will not be in trouble
Sociological Approaches to Crime: Conflict TheoryClass struggle - Government makes criminogenic environment - Bias in criminal justice system - Criminal law protects iterests of affulent & powerful
Deviance depends on?Extent to which society provides the means to achieve cultural goals
Define anomieDiscontinuity between cultural goals & accepted methods available for reaching them
Cultural goals & Institutionalized means: Conformity+, +
Cultural goals & Institutionalized means: Innovation+, -
Cultural goals & Institutionalized means: Ritualism-, +
Cultural goals & Institutionalized means: Retreatism-, -
Cultural goals & Institutionalized means: Rebellion+/- , +/-
Explain Differential Association Theory by SutherlandPeople learn criminal behaviour through social interactions
Explain Labelling Theory by BeckerLabelling of a person as deviant - No act inherently deviant until group with socially powerful statuses labels it as such
Feminist Approaches to crime focouses on?Gender gap & pathways - Ways males & females offend - How organization of gender deters/shapes crimes by wmen & encourages it by men