SOCIOLOGY 112 Chapters

tasnimjaisee's version from 2018-01-31 01:47

Chapter 1 pt 1

Question Answer
Define Social Solidarity1) Degree which members share beliefs & values 2) Intensity & frequency of their interaction
What was the conclusion of The Sociological Explanation of Suicide?High solidarity groups have lower suicide rates than low solidarity groups
Youth suicide rates ↑ from 1960’s possibly due to?↓ religious practice attendance & ↑ unemployment & ↑ single parenting; less supervision/parental interaction
What are the Structures that permeate us?Microstructures - Macrostructures - Globalization
Explain microstructuresFace-face relations Ex. Families, friendships & work colleagues - “strength of weak ties”
Explain macrostructuresOutside of person's circle of intimates & acquaintances Ex. Classes, bureaucracies, power systems (patriarchy)
Global StructuresOutside & above national level Ex. International organizations & worldwide communication Foreign aid will not end poverty due to global inequality; campaign for cancellation of foreign debt instead
Explain Sociological ImaginationConnecting personal troubles & social structures Ex. Honey Boo Boo & 12 Years A Slave
Scientific Revolution (1550)Evidence to work on society. No more speculation; Use methods of inquiry.
Democratic Revolution (1750)Society & human intervention solves social problems; not god. If people could change society, science of society could improve it.
Industrial Revolution (1780)New social problems came as people paused religion due occupation with the urbanization & economy. Sociological imagination aided sociologists to solve these problems

Chapter 1 pt 2

Question Answer
What was Auguste Comte's issue with progressives?Moved to Paris & saw French Revolution which shocked him because he valued traditional authority. Wanted social change; slower
Who were the founders of sociology?Auguste Comte & Hebert Spencer
Who's work was Hebert Spencer influenced by?Darwin. "barbaric” society is “civilized” with survival of the fitted"
Who was 1st to think sociology worked through scientific laws?Hebert Spencer
Who represented 1st examples of functionalism?Durkheim
What were the 4 aspects of functionalism?Stable social relations govern human relations • Social structures maintain social stability • Social structures are based on shared values • Re-establish equilibrium
What was the critique for Durkheim's functionalism theory?Discontent can lower if it figured out how to get more out of life
Talcott Parsons functionalism critique?Equilibrium is only when families raise successful generations with productive adult values & religious harmony
Talcott Parsons functionalism critique's response?Exaggerated degrees of which values & institutions contribute to social harmony
Robert Merton's oppinion on functionalismSocial structures have different consequences for different people groups, leading to dysfunction: creating instability
Manifest functionintended effects of social structures Ex. Transmit skills from 1 generation to next
Latent functionUnintended effects of social structures Ex. Youth culture creation which clashes with parents
Conflict theoryLarge macrolevel structures; inequality make social instability & social change.
Who was the originator of conflict theory?Marx
Class conflictStruggle between classes to resist & overcome class opposition
Class consciousnessAwareness of belonging to exploited class
What conclusion does class conflict bring in?Encourage trade union growth & labour parties; end private property & everyone shares wealth. Communist society.
What was Max Weber's opinion on conflict theory?Occupational groups stabilize society due to higher status & income than mannual workers. Class conflict is not the only force of history; religion & politics.
Who founded modern conflict theory?Mills, Power is concentrated in American society, less of a democracy than recognized
What ignighted conflict Theory in North America?Ignited by Quebec separatism, anti-Vietnam protests, feminism & pre-BLM, all part of 1960-70 strikes & demonstrations based on class, nation, races.
Cultural turnLanguage, music, literature, fashion, movies, advertising elements of cultural express domination by the power & resistance of others
Ruling classdominant due to controlling robs & fund ideas embodying everyone’s values but in reality favour upper class dominance
Cultural hegemonyOppressing values are accepted as “common sense”. Subordinate classes can resist cultural hegemony if ideas & institutions are expressed to support cultural preferences.
Define PoststructuralismDenied social relations & cultural stability; non-binary aspect
Protestant ethicReligious doubt can be reduced & grace ensured if people work hard.
VerstehenSociological analyses needs analysis of subjective meaning & motives.
Define sense of selfWe learn who we are by seeing ourselves as how they see us
Functionalists & conflict theorists assume about memberships of people's groups?people’s group memberships influence behaviour; cannot choose destiny
Define Symbolic InteractionismMicrolevel interactions & explantation of social behaviour Ex. Fatal crashes
Social ConstructionismNatural/Innate features of life are by social processes that vary historically & culturally Ex, Men & women can assume different due to biology; instead of power.
Define genderPerformance shaped by social condition than essence
Define queer TheoryArgues that labels impose social conventions; draws away from uniqueness
Who was the 1st female sociologist?Harriet Martineau
Who was the 1st female Hull House co-founder?Jane Addams
Define Feminist TheoryPatriarchy is important as class inequality in micro/macro settings. Male domination is determined by power structures; not biology. Gender inequality should be changed to benefit all of society.

Chapter 1 Fashion

Question Answer
Explain FASHION CYCLES in FunctionaliamFashion trend shifts are due to inequalities in society; allows showing off of class - Theory critique: Upper class people adopt lower class fashion trends.
Explain FASHION CYCLES in conflict theoryHelp owners make big profit - Distracts people from societal issues Color Mafia: Committee helping change colour preferences for consumer products. Theory critique: fashion is influenced by consumers & not owners
Explain FASHION CYCLES in symbolic interactionismClothes represent identity. Shows who we are & learns who others are - Fashion industry feeds on ambiguity, new styles capturing self-expression
Explain FASHION CYCLES in feminism - trad femfashion imprisons women to youth, slenderness & eroticism - sexual objectification
Define postindustrial RevolutionTechnology driven shift from manufactures. Non-manual occupations outnumber manual occupations.
Define globalizationEconomies, states & cultures become tie; interdependence.

Chapter 3

Question Answer
How can culture be used as problem solving?Superstitions
Define High CultureConsumed by mainly upper class Ex. Opera, ballet
Define Popular CultureConsumed by all class
Define Popular CultureConsumed by all class. Ex. Pop music, movies
Define CultureShared symbols & definitions people create to solve real-life problems
Define SymbolsConcrete objects/abstract term meanings represented. Shared abstract dimensions.
What signs aren't culture?Idiosyncratics, special terms & endearment
Explain look, name, seeLook @ concorete behaviour, name cultural part & see abstract understanding
Early humans survived with survival kits containing?Theory, experiment & treatment
3 main aspects of culture?Abstraction (Language-Beliefs) - Cooperation (Norms-Values) - Production (Material vs. Non Material)
Four types of norms in cultureFolkway, More, Taboos & Laws
Explain folkwaySpecify social preferences. Least severe norm; least severe punishment. Ex. Man walking without shirt on.
Explain moresSpecify social requirement. Moderated harshly; police. Ex. Man walking without pants on.
TabooStrongest & central norms. Community revulsed; Severe punishment. Ex. Incest.
LawsCodified & enforced punishment by state. Ex. Robbery.
What was the critique of evolution of human behaciour?Male promiscuity does not reflect adaptive reproduction; gay men exist, body count exaggeration.
Sapir-Whorf Thesis(1 to 2) Experience from environment and form concepts. (2 to 3) Language to express concept. (3 to 1) Language influences how we see world.
Example of Sapir-Whorf Thesis(1-2) Know which side an object surrounding you is in, (1-2) Express direction of object egocentrically, “right & left” (2-3), incomprehensive to people who use “north & south” - geographical locations (3-1).
Explain ethnocentrismJudging other cultures exclusively by standards of own culture.
How can cow worshipping be explained in India?Ex. Cow worship in India is needed for oxen (plowing), manure (fertilizer), low maintenance, protein source.
How/when is the raw material for functional anaylisis of culture?refrain from taking your own culture for granted and judging other culture to your cultures’ standard
Critiques against multiculturalismForces minority student focus too much on non-core subjects - Leads to political disunity; interethnic & interracial conflict - Grows cultural relativism
Rites of PassageCultural ceremonies that mark transition from 1 life stage to another or from life to death.
What are the important roots of globalization?International trade & investment.
How did England & U.S.A become powerful and influential countries for more than 200 years?economically (capitalism), militarily and culturally (Hollywood).
PostmodernismCultural elements, authority erosion & core values census decline.
RationalizationEfficiently achieve goals & unintended, negative consequences. Most constraining aspect of contemporary culture.
SubcultureValues, norms and practices within larger culture. Ex. Trends push us to buy; requiring more work & debt.
CounterculturesSubversive subcultures: seek replacements for dominant values. Ex. 1960’s hippies, hip-hop & modern environmentalists
Cultural CapitalBeliefs, tastes, norms & values people draw upon in everyday life
Is cultural capital symbolic or materialistic?symbolic
Culture JammingCreative methods by groups to challenge dominant cultural beliefs, tastes, norms & values. ex. Adbusters

Chapter 4

Question Answer
When parents don’t feed & comfort children everytime they wake up in the middle of the night…Children learn to eat more before bed & sleep longer - Senses interdepence; must balance needs with reality - Constitutes appropriate behaviour & moral sense
Life courseDistinct phases of life through which people pass. These stages vary from 1 society & historical period to another
Age CohortPeople born in the same range of years
Age rolesNorms & expectations about behaviour of people in different age cohorts. Ex. Merry Go Rounds 50 vs. 5
GenerationAge cohort that share formative experiences during first few decades of life; shapes collective identity
Social EnvironmentReal/imagined others to whom individuals must adapt to satisfy own needs & interests
AdaptationInvolves arranging one’s actions to maximize degrees to which environment satisfies needs and interests.
How is Socialization evolutionary?In any environment, person acts on existing personal characteristics & interests - Environment responds to person’s actions - Environmental reaction shapes conduct
Hidden curriculumTeaches what is expected of them in larger society, being a “good citizen”: Basis of performance, punctuality, respect for authority - Proposed by conflict theorists.
Thomas theoremSymbolic interactionists proposed that, situations we define as real become real in their consequences
Self-fulfilling prophecyExpectation that helps to cause what is predicted - Can affect teachers
How are peer groups agents of socialization?helps independent sources of identity
Why should Adolescent-parent discord not be exaggerated?Usually temporary & part of integrating into society

Chapter 7

Question Answer
Define DevianceBreaking & evoking negative reaction from others. Some norms are laws.
Define crimeDeviance that breaks a law
Define informal PunishmentMild. May cause Stigmatization:
Define StigmatizationNegatively evaluated from markers distinguishing them from others labelled as socially unacceptable.
Define Formal PunishmentPeople breaking laws. Ex. Prison sentences.