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Sociological Terms 3

Updated 2007-04-25 08:51

Deviant Behavior and Social Control

Question Answer
Informal SanctionsActs of approval and disapproval applied spontaneously by group members.
DiversionSending offenders, especially juveniles, to agencies outside the system.
Status OffensesOffenses that are punishable if committed by juveniles but not by an adult.
Victimless CrimeCrimes such as drug use and gambling that are not predatory but nevertheless violate the moral code
Property CrimePredatory crimes such as theft, where the criminal does not directly confront the victim.
Formal SanctionsActs of approval and disapproval applied in a public ritual, usually under the direct or indirect control of authorities.
AnomieA state of normlessness, in which values and norms have little effect and the culture no longer provides adequate guidelines for behavior.
Labeling theoryAn approach to deviance that emphasizes how some people are defined as deviant and the consequences of being so defined.
InnovatorsIn anomie theory, people who take illegal routes to socially approved goals.
Funnel EffectThe process by which a large number of crimes results in only a small number of offenders being sent to prison.
Techniques of NeutralizationThought processes that make it possible to justify illegal or deviant behavior.
RehabilitationThe resocialization of criminals to conform to society's values and norms and the teachings of usable work habits and skills.
Secondary DevianceDeviant or criminal behavior that people develop as a result of having been labeled as deviant.
RecidivismCrimes committed even after punishment has occured.
White-Collar crimeActs by individuals who, while occupying positions of social responsibility or high prestige, break the law in the course of their work.
Social ControlWays of directing or influencing members to conform to the group's values and norms.
RetreatistsIn anomie theory, people who pull back from society altogether and cease to pursue culturally legitimate goals.

Marriage and Alternative Family Arrangements

Question Answer
Incest TabooA norm that forbids sexual intercourse among closely related individuals.
ExogamyMarriage outside of one's own culturally defined group.
Matriarchal familyFamilies where the female is the dominant figure in decision making.
Family of ProcreationThe family created by marriage.
Nuclear FamilyTwo spouses and their children
Matrilineal DescentKinship traced through the mother's family (for example, if your last name were your mother's maiden name).
Extended familyFamily consisting of relatives in addition to the spouses and their children.
EndogamyMarriage within one's own social group.
HomogamyMarrying someone with similar social characteristics.
No-fault divorceDivorce granted without one partner having to prove adultery, desertion, abuse, or other faults on the part of the other.
Polygamous familyA set of nuclear families linked by multiple marriage bonds, with one central individual married to several spouses.
Patrilocal residenceA requirement that a new couple settle down near or within the husband's father's household.
Neolocal ResidenceA situation in which a newly married couple may choose to live virtually anywhere.
Family of OrientationThe family in which a person was born and raised.
PolyandryA family in which the central individual is a female and the multiple spouses are males.
Companionate marriageA marriage based on romantic love.



Question Answer
De Facto SegregationA form of racial separateness resulting from residential housing patterns
White FlightThe migration of large numbers of white Americans from the central cities to the suburbs.
"Nation at Risk"A 1983 report detailing a "rising tide of mediocrity" in U.S. education.
Hidden Curriculumthe social attitudes and values taught in school that prepare children to accept the requirements of adult life and to "fit into" the social, economic, and political statuses the society provieds.
Cultural TransmissionThe procces in which major portions of a society's knowledge are passed from one generation to the next.
The Credentialized SocietyThe increasing trend in the United States for more and more jobs to require a degree regardless of whether possession of a degree increases job performance.
De Jure SegregationA form of racial separateness based on laws prohibiting interracial contact.
No Child Left BehindPresident George W. Bush's education plan requiring extensive standardized testing.
TrackingThe stratification of students by ability, social class, and various other categories.
Brown v. Board Education/TopekaSupreme Court decision that ended de jure segregation in public schools.

Collective Behavior and Social Change

Question Answer
Expressive social movementA movement that stresses personal feelings, especially those of satisfaction or well-being.
CrazeA fad that is especially short-lived.
Reactionary Social MovementA movement that embraces the aims of the past and seeks to return the general society to yesterday's values.
CrowdAny collection of people who just happen, in the course of their private activies, to be in one place at the same time and focus their attention on a common object or event.
Revolutionary Social MovementA movement that seeks to overthrow all or nearly all of the existing social order and replce it with an order its members consider more suitable.
Acting CrowdA group of people passionately aroused by some focal event, who often erupt into unplanned violence.
FadA social change with a very short life span marked by a rapid spread and an abrupt drop in popularity
IncipiencyThe first stage of a social movement, when many people feel frustrated by the lack of currently avialable solutions to a problem
Social MovementA sustained, organized effort by large numbers of people to support and bring about, or to resist, social change.
Resource mobilization theoryThe explanation of social movements that emphasizes the actions and abilities of leaders.
Revisionary social movementA movement that seeks small changes but does not challenge the legitimacy of existing social arrangements.
Institutionalized inequalityDifferences between groups caused by arrangements in the social system rather than by individual acts of discrimination.
Cultural diffusionThe spread of an idea or technology from one society to another.
Public OpinionBeliefs held by a dispersed collectivity of individuals about a common problem, interest, focus, or activity.
MassA large group of people who, although not physically gathered in one place, shared participation in some event or share a common interest.
Relative deprivation theoryThe theory that says social movements arise when people are dissatisifed with their position in society compared with others.
Opinion LeadersRecognized experts who influence what the public thinks.
CoalescenceThe stage of a social movement when groups form around leaders and begin to devise proposals and strategies.
McdonalizationThe transformation of traditional institutions by organizing them with an emphasis on efficiency, calculability, and predictability
GlobalizationThe increasing interdependence of people, businesses, and institutions in different countries.
Expressive CrowdCrowd drawn together by the promise of personal gratification through active participation in activities and events.
Mass HysteriaLarge number of people who become overwhelmed with emotion and frenzied activity or become convinced that they have experience something for which investigators can find no discernible evidence.