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Sociolinguistics - Social Variation

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ness37's version from 2018-05-01 13:19

Section

Question Answer
Social stratification Societies are divided into smaller groups, often hierarchical. Can be flexible (social classes) or rigid (caste system).
Caste systemIn India, people were born into their social standing and would remain in it for their whole lives = no social or occupational mobility
Untouchable casteLowest socioeconomic group in Indian Caste system - had their own speech characteristics
Social stratification + the WestLess rigid than in developing countries. People are identified on the basis of dialect and accent.
Classification of social groupsOccupation, education, earnings, housing and religion
Macauley (1976)Defined 4 social classes based on occupation: I - professional/managerial, IIa - white collar/nearly non manual, IIb - skilled manual, III - semi-skilled/unskilled manual
Trudgill Suggested there is a close relationship between social class and regional dialects
Labov's NY studyAsked members of staff from 3 department stores (Saks, Macy's and S.Klein) where a particular department was to elicit (r). Then asked them to repeat themselves = casual and careful pronunciations. Speakers used both variants (omission and use) which is defined as a marker
IndicatorsLinguistic variable to which little or no importance is attached (a vs a:)
MarkersLinguistic variable which carried social significance (use of r or omission of r)
StereotypesCharacterisation of the speech of a particular group (doesn't necessarily conform to reality)
Social MobilityLabov demonstrated in another study that upwardly mobile individuals (those people changing from one job to a high status job) adjust their speech to sound more like the class they are moving to/aspire to.
Language acquisitionLinked to socioeconomic status
Snow et al.Said that low SES parents use more directives and imperatives but high SES parents use more deictic expressions and wh questions
Hart and Risely Showed that high SES parents talk significantly more to their children and the amount the child was spoken to directly correlated with vocabulary size
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