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Sociolinguistics - language variation + style

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ness37's version from 2018-05-01 13:37

Section

Question Answer
RegisterWardhaugh defines it as - sets of language items associated with a discrete occupation
Surgeons, airline pilots, managers, news stories, weather conversationsExamples of different registers
Communicative situationDefined along 3 dimensions: field (social setting), tenor (relationship between speakers) and mode (medium of communication)
Style Defined as the form of language spoken at a given time which is determined by the social circumstances
Informal - formal, formulaic - creative, impersonal - intimate Examples of style
Passive competenceRecognition
Active competenceProduction
Register and styleWith both, most people have greater passive than active competence of variations
Sociolinguistic behaviour When we are put in unfamiliar social settings we will often become highly self-conscious and misjudge the pattern they should produce
Speech accommodation theoryWhere two speakers adapt to each other's speech - reduce or increase social distance, age distance and institutional power
ConvergenceShow solidarity, want to please other speaker
DivergenceShow distance, enhance differences
CouplandStudied a travel agent who shifted her style according to her addressee and goal of the activity (selling a holiday) - shifted style for whole of the interaction
BellArgued that speakers design their style for their audience
Contexts of accommodationMotherese, foreigner talk, accent/dialect, speaking to the elderly
LabovDefined 5 contextual styles: from less formal to very formal (casual conversation, interview style, reading style, word list, minimal pairs).
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