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Sociolinguistics - language variation + gender

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ness37's version from 2018-05-01 13:31

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Question Answer
Language-inherent differences between gendersIn Chiquito (Bolivia) men and women use different lexical items when referring to members of the family e.g. mother (male = ipaki and female ipapa) + In a Mongolian language, men and women use different vowels
Women's language vs. men's languageLakoff claimed several differences between men and women's language based on her intuitions and observations (e.g. women use more affective adjectives, precise colour terms, intensifiers and avoidance of swear words. West conducted a study on male and female Drs and found that male Drs interrupted patients more than females Drs did with patients - Males did this due to dominance and control
WolframFound that gender and vernacular use were linked - African American men had a greater use of double negatives than women
MilroyFound that men used the vernacular 100% of the time and women used it 50% of the time
Reasons for gender differencesMobility, status consciousness and face
MobilityNetwork density is typically higher for men than women (linked to greater use of vernacular forms) therefore, not gender but social mobility that is indicative of linguistic patterns
Status consciousness Trudgill argues that middle class men give covert prestige to working class features and women perceive them as lower status in society (men under report and women over report use of prestige forms)
FaceDuechar says that women's use of standard forms is due to face considerations - women want to pay attention to men's faces while maintaining their own
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