Create
Learn
Share

Sociocultural Paper 1 - May 12, 2017

rename
vepikuno's version from 2017-05-12 03:12

Bonus (Sociocultural)

Question Answer
Principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis.Human beings are social animals that have a basic need to belong (Asch)
Social and cultural environment influences behavior (Bandura and Ross, Charlton)
Humans construct conceptions of our individual and social self (Tajfel, Kashima and Triandis, Ross, Amabile, and Steinmetz)
Principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis demonstrated in research.Conformity - Asch conformity studies
Social learning theory - Bandura and Ross - Bobo Doll study
Social learning theory – Charlton
Social identity theory – Tajfel
Compliance (Door-in-the-face, Foot-in-the-door, Low-balling)
Attribution theory (Kashima and Triandis and Ross, Amabile, and Steinmetz)
How and why particular research methods are used at the sociocultural level of analysis.Observation (Charlton)
Experiments (laboratory and natural)
Cultural normsPassed down from generation to generation.
memorize

Two errors in attributions

Question Answer
Fundamental Attribution Errorexplain the behavior of OTHERS (Ross, Amabile, Steinmetz (1977) (situation external) -- SEX [RAS]
Self-serving biasway to explain YOUR OWN behavior (Kashmina & Triandis (1986) (dispositional internal) -- DIN [TK]
memorize

Social Learning Theory

Question Answer
ARMRMAttention, Retention, Motor reproduction, Motivation - observers must want to demonstrate what they have just observed
Bobo Doll StudyBandura and Ross (1961)
Bobo Doll PurposeWhether or not children would imitate aggression of an adult
St. Helena StudyCharlton (2002)
St. Helena PurposeWhether or not the introduction of television would change behavior.
ExplainsHow behavior can be passed on without trial and error.
Behavior acquired, not demonstrated.
Cialdini (1976)More likely to bandwagon when teams are winning than losing.
Tajfel (1970)Social categorization (us vs. them in groups).
memorize

Compliance Techniques

Question Answer
Foot-in-the doorsmall -> big
Door-in-the-facebig -> small
Lowballsmall -> addition
memorize

Factors influencing conformity

Question Answer
Culture NormsBerry (1967)
Conformity higher with farmers and their culture than Canada with hunting, fishing and self-reliance.
Group SizeAsch found group size influenced whether subjects conformed. As more confederates give the correct response, conformity increased.
1 (3)
2 (14)
3 (32)
Group UnanimityThe likelihood of conformity increases when all confederates agree.
memorize

Formation of Stereotypes and their Effect on Behavior

Question Answer
Stereotypes based onIndividual experiences and schema.
Stereotypes can beShared by groups.
memorize

The Princeton Trilogy

Question Answer
The Princeton TrilogyKatz and Braley (1933)
Stereotypes
AimTo investigate whether social stereotypes have a cultural bias.
ProcedureOne hundred male Princeton students chose five traits that characterized a group.
ResultsStudents agreed on negative traits, despite lack of contact with other groups.
StrengthsReplicated results are reliable results.
LimitationsDifficult to generalize (males, Princeton).
memorize

The Princeton Trilogy

Question Answer
The Princeton TrilogyGilbert (1951)
Stereotypes
AimTo investigate whether social stereotypes have a cultural bias.
ProcedureReplicated Katz and Braley’s study.
ResultsStudents did not agree on negative traits as much as 1933.
Stereotypes were negative for Japanese.
StrengthsReplicated results are reliable results.
LimitationsDifficult to generalize.
memorize

Emic vs. Etic

Question Answer
Cattle StudyBartlett (1932)
Emic
Culture
AimTo study one culture alone to understand behavior, focusing on norms, values and customs.
ProcedureTo investigate if the Swazi people can recall individual characteristics of their cattle.
ResultsThey can.
StrengthsContributed to the Social Learning Theory (behavior is acquired).
LimitationsDifficult to generalize (Swazi).
memorize

Conformity

Question Answer
ConformityAsch (1951)
Social Learning Theory
Human beings are social animals that have a basic need to belong
ProcedureSeven male college students were placed around two white cards.
There was one real participant (naïve participant).
Six were confederates that were instructed to give unanimous wrong answers.
ResultsConformity occurred often
75% conformed at least once to the wrong answer
24% did not conform at all
StrengthsReplicated results are reliable results.
Contributed to the Social Learning Theory (behavior is acquired).
LimitationsDifficult to generalize (United States male).
memorize

Conformity

Question Answer
ConformityBerry (1967)
Social Learning Theory
Etic
Culture
Social and cultural environment influences behavior
ProcedureVariation to the Asch study, where conformity is observed in cultures.
ResultsConformity higher with farmers and their culture than Canada with hunting, fishing and self-reliance.
StrengthsReplicated results are reliable results.
Contributed to the Social Learning Theory (behavior is acquired).
memorize

Bobo Doll Experiment

Question Answer
Bobo Doll ExperimentBandura and Ross (1961)
Social Learning Theory
Social and cultural environment influences behavior
AimTo see if children would imitate the aggression of an adult model and whether they would imitate same-sex models more than opposite sex models.
ProcedureChildren saw either a male or female adult model behave aggressively toward a bobo doll. Children were told to not play with the toys before being sent into a separate room to be observed for twenty minutes.
ResultsChildren (particularly boys) were more aggressive than girls.
Children were more likely to imitate same-sex models.
StrengthsContributed to the Social Learning Theory (behavior is acquired).
LimitationsLow ecological validity (laboratory experiment)
memorize

St. Helena

Question Answer
St. HelenaCharlton (2002)
Social Learning Theory
Observations
Conformity
Culture
Social and cultural environment influences behavior
ProcedureChildren (aged 3-8 years) were observed before and after the introduction of television.
ResultsThere was no increase in aggressive behavior.
Social and cultural factors also play a role in what behaviors are acceptable, so the children did not show aggressive behavior, even if they learned it.
StrengthsHigh ecological validity.
LimitationsBiased answers (teachers, parents interviewed).
memorize

Compliance

Question Answer
Door in the FootCialdini (1975)
Door in the Foot (Procedure)72 students were asked two questions (if they would chaperone a group of juvenile delinquents on a zoo trip, if they would counsel delinquentes for two years).
Door in the Foot (Results)17% percent volunteered to the first question, while nobody volunteered to the second question.
After asking people to counsel delinquents first, fifty percent agreed to chaperone to the zoo.
Door in the Foot (Limitations)Difficult for generalization (California).
Foot in the DoorFreedman and Fraser (1966)
Foot in the Door (Procedure)California residents were asked to put a large “Drive Carefully” sign to be placed in the front yard.
Foot in the Door (Results)17% percent agreed, while nearly all agree when asked to put a “Be a safe driver” sign in their yard.
76% agree to put the “Drive Carefully” sign, since they were more likely to agree to the larger request.
Foot in the Door (Limitations)Difficult for generalization (California).
Low-BallingCialdini (1974)
Low-Balling (Procedure)University students were asked to be part of a study that meets at 7AM.
Low-Balling (Results)24% agreed, but when students were asked to be apart of the study without receiving a time, everyone 56% accepted.
When it was revealed that the study would meet at 7:00AM, nobody backed out of their commitment and 95% showed up the day of.
Low-Balling (Limitations)Difficult to generalize (California).
memorize

Self-Serving Bias

Question Answer
Self-Serving BiasKashima and Triandis (1986)
Attribution
Etic
Culture
Humans construct conceptions of our individual and social self
AimTo see how students were able to remember details.
ProcedureSlides from unfamiliar countries were shown to American and Japanese students and they were asked to remember details.
ResultsAmericans explained their success with dispositional (internal) attributions and their failures with using situational (external) attributions.
The Japanese explained their success with situational attributions and their failure with dispositional attributions (lack of ability).
StrengthsEthical.
LimitationsSmall Japanese sample.
Difficult to generalize.
memorize

Fundamental Attribution Theory

Question Answer
Fundamental Attribution TheoryRoss, Amabile and Steinmetz (1977)
Attribution
Humans construct conceptions of our individual and social self
AimTo investigate whether knowledge of social roles in a quiz show would affect participants’ judgments of the expertise of others.
ProcedureEighteen pairs of students participated in a quiz show, where they were either the host or contestant. Twenty-four people watched the quiz. The host gave a question, waited 30 seconds for a response and observers were asked to rate the “general” knowledge of contestants and hosts.
ResultsPeople rated the host with more knowledge.
Contestants and observers attributed the questions’ ability to answer the question to dispositional factors.
StrengthsEthical.
LimitationsDifficult to generalize (one university).
memorize

Social Identity Theory

Question Answer
Social Identity TheoryTajfel (1970)
Attribution
Humans construct conceptions of our individual and social self
AimTo investigate if boys placed in random groups would display in-group favoritism and intergroup discrimination.
ProcedureParticipants were split into groups and had to estimate how many dots were showed on a screen. Boys had to give each other money and only knew if they were in the same group or a different group.
ResultsMajority of boys gave more money to members of their group than to other groups.
In-group favoritism.
StrengthsContributed to the Social Learning Theory (behavior is acquired).
LimitationsDifficult to generalize (UK boys).
memorize

Case Studies

Question Answer
The Princeton TrilogyKatz and Braley (1933)
Stereotypes
The Princeton TrilogyGilbert (1951)
Stereotypes
Cattle StudyBartlett (1932)
Emic
Culture
ConformityAsch (1951)
Social Learning Theory
Human beings are social animals that have a basic need to belong
ConformityBerry (1967)
Social Learning Theory
Etic
Culture
Social and cultural environment influences behavior
Bobo Doll ExperimentBandura and Ross (1961)
Social Learning Theory
Social and cultural environment influences behavior
St. HelenaCharlton (2002)
Social Learning Theory
Observations
Conformity
Culture
Social and cultural environment influences behavior
Door in the FootCialdini (1975)
Compliance
Foot in the DoorFreedman and Fraser (1966)
Compliance
Low-BallingCialdini (1974)
Compliance
Self-Serving BiasKashima and Triandis (1986)
Attribution
Etic
Culture
Humans construct conceptions of our individual and social self
Fundamental Attribution TheoryRoss, Amabile and Steinmetz (1977)
Attribution
Humans construct conceptions of our individual and social self
Social Identity TheoryTajfel (1970)
Attribution
Humans construct conceptions of our individual and social self
memorize

Case Studies (People)

Question Answer
The Princeton TrilogyKatz and Braley (1933)
The Princeton TrilogyGilbert (1951)
Cattle StudyBartlett (1932)
ConformityAsch (1951)
ConformityBerry (1967)
Bobo Doll ExperimentBandura and Ross (1961)
St. HelenaCharlton (2002)
Door in the FootCialdini (1975)
Foot in the DoorFreedman and Fraser (1966)
Low-BallingCialdini (1974)
Self-Serving BiasKashima and Triandis (1986)
Fundamental Attribution TheoryRoss, Amabile and Steinmetz (1977)
Social Identity TheoryTajfel (1970)
memorize

Case Studies (Individual)

Question Answer
The Princeton TrilogyStereotypes
Cattle StudyEmic
Cattle studyCulture
ConformitySocial Learning Theory
ConformityHuman beings are social animals that have a basic need to belong
Conformity (variation)Etic
Conformity (variation)Culture
Conformity (variation)Social and cultural environment influences behavior
Bobo Doll ExperimentSocial Learning Theory
Bobo Doll ExperimentSocial and cultural environment influences behavior
St. HelenaSocial Learning Theory
St. HelenaObservations
St. HelenaConformity
St. HelenaCulture
St. HelenaSocial and cultural environment influences behavior
Door in the FootCompliance
Foot in the DoorCompliance
Low-BallingCompliance
Self-Serving BiasAttribution
Self-Serving BiasEtic
Self-Serving BiasCulture
Self-Serving BiasHumans construct conceptions of our individual and social self
Fundamental Attribution TheoryAttribution
Fundamental Attribution TheoryHumans construct conceptions of our individual and social self
Social Identity TheoryAttribution
Social Identity TheoryHumans construct conceptions of our individual and social self
memorize

Bonus (Cognitive)

Question Answer
SchemaWar of the Ghosts
Bartlett (1932)
Iconic memoryVisual
Ecohic memoryAudio
Maintenance rehearsalThinking of something repeatedly for 30 seconds.
SlotsSeven
Procedural memoryActions
Semantic memoryMental
Episodic memoryNouns
Clive WearingOliver Sacks (2007)
Clive Wearing hadViral infection, lost his memory.
Afterwards, Clive WearingCould not create new memories and was stuck permanently on short-term memory
Clive Wearing lostSemantic and episodic memory
Fish Tank StudyAsians pay attention to the big picture, Americans to details in a fish tank video.
Loftus and Palmer (1974)Different words for "crashed" changes conception of how fast the cars were going.
Flashbulb MemoriesBrown and Kulick (1977)
Brown and KulickArgue that flashbulb memories stay long-term when they are consequential or an emotion event.
Appraisal TheoryLazarus (1975)
Positive appraisalPositive emotion
Primary appraisalHow situation affects well-being
Secondary appraisalHow people copes with situation
memorize

Bonus (Biological)

Question Answer
Animal ResearchMinimize stress and pain for animals.
Get ethical committee.
Animals used whenImpossible to get humans.
Localization of FunctionPhineas Gage (1848)
Gage shot byIron rod
Gage's front lobeDamaged, although memories retained, his personality changed.
Limitations to GageFindings cannot be generalized (cannot recreate this)
NeurotransmittersSeratonin (sleep), Dopamine (movement)
Hormones on behaviorCortisol (stress can lead to memory damage), oxytocin (increases trust)
Identical twinsShare all genes (although IQ is inherited, per Bouchard)
Fraternal twinsShare half the genes (IQ is 70% of intelligence)
Gaining weightCan be related to genetics
memorize