Social Psych Test 3

octopirecipes's version from 2015-04-29 15:50


Question Answer
need for affiliationThe desire to establish and maintain many rewarding interpersonal relationships.
mere exposure effectThe phenomenon whereby the more often people are exposed to a stimulus, the more positively they evaluate that stimulus.
what-is-beautiful-is-goodstereotype The belief that physically attractive individuals also possess desirable personality characteristics.
matching hypothesisThe proposition that people are attracted to others who are similar in physical attractiveness.


Question Answer
getting aquaintedpeople tend to befriend/marry those with similarities (demographic backgrounds, attitudes, interests)
cons to beautynot happier or higher self esteem, presure to look good leads to disatifaction with appearance
intimate relationships includeattachment, fufillment of psychological need, and interdependence


Question Answer
reciprocityA mutual exchange between what we give and receive—for example, liking those who like us.
hard-to-get effectThe tendency to prefer people who are highly selective in their social choices over those who are more readily available.
social exchange theoryA perspective that views people as motivated to maximize benefits and minimize costs in their relationships with others.
equity theoryThe theory that people are most satisfi ed with a relationship when the ratio between benefi ts and contributions is similar for both partners.


Question Answer
cues of attractiveness in womenhealth, youth, fertility
symmetryhow features develop naturally, if beat outside forces, good strong genes
changes during ovulationphysical attractiveness, WHR decreases, mate preference, desire for affair partners.


Question Answer
exchange relationshipA relationship in which the participants expect and desire strict reciprocity in their interactions.
communal relationshipA relationship in which the participants expect and desire mutual responsiveness to each other’s needs.
attachment styleThe way a person typically interacts with signifi cant others.
triangular theory of loveA theory proposing that love has three basic components— intimacy, passion, and commitment—that can be combined to produce eight subtypes.
passionate loveRomantic love characterized by high arousal, intense attraction, and fear of rejection.
companionate loveA secure, trusting, stable partnership.


Question Answer
excitation transferThe process whereby arousal caused by one stimulus is added to arousal from a second stimulus and the combined arousal is attributed to the second stimulus.
self-disclosureRevelations about the self that a person makes to others
Anxious/ambivalent attachments characterized by a strong desire for a relationship, together with a fear that the relationship will not work out properly


Question Answer
aggressionBehavior intended to harm another individual.
instrumental aggressionInfl icting harm in order to obtain something of value.(predatory)
emotional aggressionInfl icting harm for its own sake. (reactive, affective)
social learning theoryThe theory that behavior is learned through the observation of others as well as through the direct experience of rewards and punishments.
frustration-aggression hypothesisThe idea that(1) frustration always elicitsthe motive to aggress; and(2) all aggression is caused by frustration.


Question Answer
displacementAggressing against a substitute target because aggressive acts against the source of the frustration are inhibited by fear or lack of access.
catharsisA reduction of the motive to aggress that is said to result from any imagined, observed, or actual act of aggression (violent sports)
weapons effectThe tendency that the likelihood of aggression will increase by the mere presence of weapons.
hostile attribution biasThe tendency to perceive hostile intent in others.


Question Answer
desensitizationReduction in emotion-related physiological reactivity in response to a stimulus.
cultivationThe process by which the mass media (particularly television) construct a version of social reality for the public.
cycle of violenceThe transmission of domestic violence across generations.
male vs female aggressionmen are more violent, tend to be overtly physically aggressive, females tend to be more indirectly or relationally aggressive.




Question Answer
voir direThe pretrial examination of prospective jurors by the judge or opposing lawyers to uncover signs of bias.
peremptory challengeA means by which lawyers can exclude a limited number of prospective jurors without the judge’s approval.
scientific jury selectionmethod of selecting juries through surveys that yield correlations between demographics and trialrelevant attitudes.
death qualificationA juryselection procedure used in capital cases that permits judges to exclude prospective jurors who say they would not vote for the death penalty.


Question Answer
polygraphA mechanical instrument that records physiological arousal from multiple channels; it is often used as a lie-detector test.
industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologyThe study of human behavior in business and other organizational settings.
jury nullificationThe jury’s power to disregard, or “nullify,” the law when it confl icts with personal conceptions of justice
leniency biasThe tendency for jury deliberation to produce a tilt toward acquittal.sentencing disparity Inconsistency of sentences for the same offense from one judge to another.


Question Answer
adversarial modelA disputeresolution system in which the prosecution and defense present opposing sides of the story.
inquisitorial modelboth sides and presents the fi ndings in court.
integrity testsQuestionnaires designed to test a job applicant’s honesty and character
structured interviewAn interview in which each job applicant is asked a standard set of questions and evaluated on the same criteria.
assessment centerA structured setting in which job applicants are exhaustively tested and judged by multiple evaluators.


Question Answer
performance appraisal The process of evaluating an employee’s work within the organization.
contingency model of leadershipThe theory that leadership effectiveness is determined both by the personal characteristics of leaders and by the control afforded by the situation.
transactional leaderA leader who gains compliance and support from followers primarily through goal setting and the use of rewards.
transformational leader Aleader who inspires followers to transcend their own needs in the interest of a common cause. expectancy theory The theory that workers become motivated when they believe that their efforts will produce valued outcomes.
endowment effectThe tendency for people to infl ate the value of objects, goods, or services they already own.




Question Answer
health psychologyThe study of physical health and illness by psychologists from various areas of specialization
stressAn unpleasant state of arousal in which people perceive the demands of an event as taxing or exceeding their ability to satisfy or alter those demands.
appraisalThe process by which people make judgments about the demands of potentially stressful events and their ability to meet those demands.
copingEfforts to reduce stress.
stressorAnything that causes stress.


Question Answer
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)A condition in which a person experiences enduring physical and psychological symptoms after an extremely stressful event
general adaptation syndromeA three-stage process (alarm, resistance, and exhaustion) by which the body responds to stress.
Type A personalityA pattern of behavior characterized by extremes of competitive striving for achievement, a sense of time urgency, hostility, and aggression.
immune systemA biological surveillance system that detects and destroys “nonself” substances that invade the body.
psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)A subfield of psychology that examines the links among psychological factors, the brain and nervous system, and the immune system.


Question Answer
learned helplessnessA phenomenon in which experience with an uncontrollable event creates passive behavior in the face of subsequent threats to wellbeing.
depressive explanatory styleA habitual tendency to attribute negative events to causes that are stable, global, and internal.
self-efficacyA person’s belief that he or she is capable of the specif c behavior required to produce a desired outcome in a given situation.


Question Answer
problem-focused copingCognitive and behavioral efforts to alter a stressful situation. school problems? study harder relationship problems? talk it out
emotion-focusedcoping Cognitive and behavioral efforts to reduce the distress produced by a stressful situation.
proactive copingUp-front efforts to ward off or modify the onset of a stressful event.
social supportThe helpful coping resources provided by friends and other people.
subjective well-beingOne’s happiness, or life satisfaction, as measured by self-report.