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Social processes that influence human behavior

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icer215's version from 2016-08-24 22:57

Section

Question Answer
Social Facilitation A theory that describe when you perform better on easy tasks when others are watching you. For example, you have a task of cleaning a common area at work.
Norman Triplett’s studiesInitiated idea of social facilitation, Co-action effects, Audience effects
Co-action effectsBetter performance in presence of others carrying out the same task
Audience effectsBetter performance in presence of passive spectator/audience
Robert Zajonc’s studiesActivation theory
Activation theoryPresence of others work as a basis of arousal to provide enhanced performance. However, when you do less well on complicated tasks where you are being watched or assessed
Social facilitationis an important aspect to study to understand motivation
DeindividuationWhen in a group, an individual’s self-awareness and responsibility is lost
Gustave Le BonIn his book “The Crowd,” Le Bon discussed that individual’s unconscious mind forms a shared mind of the entire crowd causing violent and impulsive behavior
Three factors that affect Deindividuation in a groupAnonymity, Diffused responsibility, Group size
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Question Answer
AnonymityI cannot be found out in a large crowd, Self-evaluation is decreased, Perform behaviors that are violent
Diffused responsibilityI am not responsible for my actions, Less individual responsibility ➙ shared responsibility as a group
Group sizeThe above to factors increase
Bystander EffectA phenomenon that occurs when presence of others hinders individuals to have no means to help a victim in a situation. Likelihood to help a person in need decreases with greater number of people around
Psychologists Bibb Latane and John DarleyRecognized that there is diffused responsibility and social influence in a emergency situation in presence of others. Even if an individual is stabbed in a middle of a street, people do not step into the situation to help that victim
Five steps that an individual go through when facing emergencyAcknowledge the event, Recognize the emergency, Assume responsibility, Decide what to do, Act
Recognize the emergencyIf no one is helping, it is not an emergency
Assume responsibilitySomebody will help or probably will
ActWorry about the danger, Walk away, Help
Social LoafingAn idea that describes people in a group put less effort in performing a task than working alone. Opposite to social facilitation. Negative effect for the group and the members in the group
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Question Answer
In-grouprefers to those in a group that works hard and put a lot more effort to accomplish their goals
Out-grouprefers to those in a group that works not as hard and put less effort
Conflicts between group members produce less productivity
The larger the group is more likely that social loafing will occur
To reduce social loafingIdentify and emphasize individual’s contribution. Keep appropriate group size
Peer PressureWhen people (peers) around you influence (pressure) how you act, decide, and behave. commonly involves risk taking behaviors such as drug abuse, sexual behaviors, drinking, violent acts, and so on
Peerscan be your friends, team members, etc.
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Pressure :is a way of encouraging one to do certain things to follow the norms in a group or society

 

Question Answer
Group PolarizationThe group’s tendency to make more extreme decisions than the individual’s initial opinions. For example, one initially had mild opposition to an idea, however after discussion in the group one develops stronger opposition against the idea. Inclined to take greater risk
Humans have strong desire to fit into a groupso there is a strong influence in one’s thoughts, behavior and decisions
Self-categorization theorycan explain the reason behind group polarization as well
In psychological studiesThe juries in a law court made more extreme decisions, either more severe or lenient
GroupthinkA term was established by Irving L. Janis in 1972. Individuals agree with the decision made within the group
An example of groupthink in schoolYou are working on a school project with a group ➙ one of the member proposed an idea that you believe it is not as good ➙ however the group suggests that it is good ➙ resulting in carrying out that idea for the school project without discussing your own opinion to the group
Groupthink occurs whenThere is a strong, persuasive group leader, There is a high level of group cohesion, There is a outside pressure to make a good decision
How to avoid groupthinkTest assumptions, Explore objects and alternatives, Understand the consequences of a decision, Research the risk from making certain decision
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