Social interactions

icer215's version from 2016-08-24 19:40


Question Answer
StatusesOne’s position in society. For example, daughter or son. Two ways that determine one’s position or rank within the society
Two ways that determine one’s position or rank within the societyThey influence each other
one’s position or rank within the societyAchieved status & Ascribed status
Achieved statusStatus that one achieved/earned, One is placed in the stratification structure based on his or her merits or accomplishments, Merits or accomplishments are earned through education, occupation, and martial status
Ascribed statusAssigned at birth, Status that one inherit on the social hierarchy, Includes: sex, race, age, ethnic group, socioeconomic status
Roles Set of rules or norms, Function to guide one’s behavior within a certain society, The part that a person plays as a member of a social group
Types of rolesOccupational role & Relational role
Occupational roleRelates to one’s individual function & One’s profession is an example
Relational roleRelates to how one behave towards others. Being a father or CEO of a company is an example
Role strainWhen one has difficult time taking all the responsibilities (meet the demands) of their role
Role conflictWhen one faces two different roles at the same time. For example, being a father and a lawyer: either to go to the office or go home for his daughter’s birthday party
GroupsCollection of people that interact with one another. Usually involves more than two people. There can be shared interest, value, goals, background, social roles, language, or other factors that bond them in some way. Enables one to generalize about an individual depending on which group that person belongs to
Some examples of groupsSports teams & College clubs
Two orders of groupsPrimary groups & Secondary groups


Question Answer
Primary groupsSmall social group, People share close personal relationships in this group, Long-lasting relationships are formed in between group members, Members support each other with love, care, concerns, and more, Include: family and childhood friends
Secondary groupsGroup that you choose to be a part of, Less personal, Temporary, Based on interests and activities. Include: work groups
NetworksConnections between people. Connections through: knowledge, shared interest, money, friendship, work, school, etc. Social structure in our society. Composed of nodes and ties
Nodesan individual or organization involved in the group
Tiestypes of connections between the nodes
Strong tiesinclude family bonds. Smaller and tighter network = less creativity, but more efficiency
Weak tiesinclude mere acquaintances. Larger and looser network = more creativity, but less efficiency
OrganizationIn a given community, an organization is a structure of social order that govern people
Organizational structure includeUsed to keep an order. Committees or juries e.g. Voted or assigned by the members in the organization
EcologiesCompetition based. Members of this organization compete against other organization and within the group
Matrix organizationsInvolves assigning bosses (experts) that overlook other workers


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Pyramids or hierarchiesSystem of arranged leaders with enough people supporting them under
Self-presentationThe way people try to control or influence the perceptions of other people including yourself, material possession, or an event. Goal-directed. Conscious or unconscious process
Gender shapes expressionMasculinity & Femininity
MasculinityMore aggressive and tough expressions
FemininityMore ladylike expressions. More emotional
Culture shapes expressionLanguage
LanguageThe way one verbally expresses is influenced by culture
Emotions/ non-verbal expressions / facial expressionSome culture consider a certain emotion as a fundamental emotion to express, while some cultures do not. Kiss on the cheeks as a form of greeting works in particular cultures. In some cultures, girls are not to show their emotions or facial expressions to other men
Impression ManagementFront stage vs. back stage self (Dramaturgical approach). Concept developed by Erving Goffman
Theatrical expression of how people interact in the society
Human interactions depend on time, place, and audience
Front stageWhere performers spends most of their time, One knows that he or she is being watched by other (audience), Everyday life is performed here in front of others, Successful performance involves a distinction between the situation and true self. Including wedding, classroom, dinner table, work, and etc.


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Back stagePrivate stage of performer’s life, No one (audience) is watching, True self can be revealed, Where one prepares to return to front stage
Verbal communicationAny communication that involves words, spoken, or written, Clarification is very crucial, If not communicated clearly, it can lead to misunderstanding the information and eventually spread misleading information
Verbal communication IncludesFace-to-face, Telephone, Radio or television
Nonverbal communicationSubtle way of sending/receiving messages to/from others nonverbally. Wordless signals
Nonverbal communication IncludesEye contact, Facial expression, Gesture, Body language, Posture
Animal signalsVisual, Auditory, Tactile
VisualShape, Movement, Color, Facial expression, Light. For example, bees perform round and waggle dance to visually signal others about information about a food source. Another example is easily seen around us. A dog wagging its tail signals that it is happy and playful.
AuditorySound. For example, male birds sing during breeding season
ChemicalPheromones & Odor. For example, dogs urine to mark their territories
TactileTouch. For example, female primates cuddle their babies
Animal communicationIntraspecific communication & Interspecific communication
Intraspecific communicationWithin a particular species
Interspecific communicationBetween prey and predator: Warning signs &Deceiving tactics. Between animals and humans


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AttractionA positive feeling toward another person. Can establish relationships and even love
Factors that influence attractionPhysical proximity, Familiarity, Similarities, Physical attractiveness
Physical proximityMere exposure effect, the more interaction there is in between people, the more likely a relationship can form. A relationship is less likely to form in long distance
SimilaritiesSimilar backgrounds, age, culture, etc.
Psychologist Robert Sternberg’s triangular theory of loveHe suggested that when there is passion, intimacy, and commitment between people, they are in a state of consummate love
AggressionBehavior that intend to hurts others physically or psychologically
Types of aggressionIndirect aggression, Direct aggression, Instrumental aggression, Emotional aggression
Indirect aggressionWithout face-to-face conflict. Attempt to hurt another
Direct aggressionAttempt to hurt another with face-to-face conflict
Emotional aggressionDue to anger
Instrumental aggressionTo accomplish non-aggressive goal


Question Answer
Purposes of aggression includeSimple expression of anger, Reaction to pain/fear, Assertion of dominance, Intimidation
AttachmentEmotional bond between people
Psychologist John Bowlby’s attachment theoryObserved that when children is separated from their mothers, they experience extreme distress
Children had strong attachmentto their caregiver, caregivers provide children the feeling of security (secure attachment) during stressful event, children want to be as close as possible to their caregivers
Psychologist Harry Harlow’s studies on monkeysStudied the bond between mothers and newborn rhesus monkeys. Infant monkeys were raised in isolation, some died, some were frightened and behaved abnormally, and some could not interact with other monkeys when old. Infant monkeys were raised with surrogate mothers, one mother is made of wire and one mother is covered in soft cloth. Monkeys spent more time with the cloth mother even when that mother did not have milk. Attachment improves the infant’s chance of survival
Social SupportPeople around you that are willing to help/support you in times of crisis and need. Crucial to reduce psychological and physiological consequences of stress
Supportive resources can beEmotional, Instrumental, Informational
EmotionalNontangible support, Provide sense of belonging, Help increase sense of self-worth, Emotional security
InstrumentalFinancial assistance & Services
InformationalAdvice, Guidance, Suggestion to solve the problems together


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Foraging behaviorSearching for food, Fundamental behavior for animals to survive and reproduce, Various types of behaviors depending on the animal and the food they eat, Animals apply tactics to use least amount of energy to gain the most nutrients
Types of foragingSolitary foraging & Group of foraging
Solitary foragingAnimals individually find and consume food
Group of foragingAnimals find and consume food tighter in a group
Factors that influence foraging behavior:
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LearningAnimals experiencing and adapting to changing environment maximizes their fitness and survival
GeneticsGenes are associated with foraging behavior
PredationThe presence of predator
ParasitismAnimals can either avoid or find other ways to find either increase or decrease the risk of being parasitized
Types of mating behaviorMonogamy & Polygamy


Question Answer
MonogamyWhen two animals mate with each other
PolygamyWhen animals have multiple mating partners
Polygynyone male + multiple females
Polyandryone female + multiple males
Mating strategiesRandom mating, Asssortative mating, Non-asssortative mating
Random matingAll animals within a species are potential mating partners. No behavioral or social limitations. Great genetic diversity can occur
Asssortative matingHigh frequency of mating between those that have similarities with each other. Inbreeding can cause problem
Non-asssortative matingAnimals with different traits mate more
Bateman’s principleDescribes the variance among females in mating success is low, while males in mating success is high
Study of applied mathematicsOriginally describes the strategies on decision making that humans use when interacting with others


Question Answer
Applied in biologyit refers to strategy for animal’s fitness. Help humans to understand different phenomena that occurs in the animal kingdom by applying the alternative strategies to test the animal’s ability to survive and reproduce. The better fitness when compared to competitors = increase in offspring (units of fitness). For simplicity, the theory uses asexual reproduction and leave out any mutation probability
AltruismDescribes one’s unselfishness (selflessness) towards other people. One’s behavior comes from simple desire to help others, not because of certain obligations, loyalty, or religious reasons. Early developmental trajectory
Reasons for altruismKin selection & Reciprocal altruism
Kin selectionBiological related people are more likely to be altruistic toward each other
Reciprocal altruismPeople who received help (generosity) have tendency to help others
Empathy-altruism hypothesisStates that altruism exists due to empathic desire that one has to help others that are suffering
Inclusive FitnessCooperation and altruistic behavior lead to successive pass down of animals’ genes. Indirect reproduction & Improves the genetic fitness
Altruistic behaviorbehavior that lowers the fitness of the individual carrying out the behavior, but increases the fitness of another individual
Discrimination can arise fromrace, nationality, religion, age, sexual orientation, and gender
Individual discriminationWhen an individual treats another person/group negatively and different from others. Involves exclusion or restriction of others from different opportunities
Institutional discriminationWhen legal system, government, corporations, and schools intentionally differentiate members within a group. Unfair and biased treatments
An example of institutional discrimination (racism) in our historyS. Supreme Court case Plessy vs. Ferguson in 1896 favored in “separate but equal” public facilities between African Americans and non-African Americans


Question Answer
PrejudiceUnjustified attitude toward others based on their the social group
DiscriminationUsually negative behavior/opinion toward others/group of people based on their sex, race, social class, religion, and etc.
Relationship between prejudice and discriminationCircular relationship: one lead to the other. Influenced by people around you and social norms. People act negatively towards others to fit into the social norms
Power Ability to control other people and Political, economical, and personal power
PrestigeGood reputation and People who do not have respectable education background and occupations are discriminated by those who do
ClassLower, middle, and upper class and Lower class people are discriminated – known to be poor because they are lazy