Social Foundations of Funeral Service

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Section 1

Question Answer
adaptive funeralfuneral rite that is adjusted to the needs and wants of those directly involved; altered to suit the trends of the times.
American Board of Funeral Service EducationThe agency charged with developing curriculum and accreditation standards for funeral service education programs in the United States
Animistic viewearly Roman view of the afterlife which emphasizes the soul as the vital principle. The soul at death hovered around the place of burial and required constant attention of the descendents to be happy. Neglect would bring evil upon them
anthropoidhuman shaped; some early coffins were described as anthropoidal shaped
AnubisEgyptian god of embalming said to be of human form with the head of a jackal

Section 2

Question Answer
Babyloniansculture associated with the practice of immersing the body of the dead in earthen jars filled with honey or wax.
barber-surgeonapproximately 1540-1745 were the sole agency permitted to embalm and perform anatomical dissections in the city of London.
bierforerunner of today's hearse; a hand stretcher on which the uncoffined body was carried to the grave.
bloodlettingbelief or practice of draining a quantity of blood to cure illness or disease.
burial casegeneric term used in America to designate all burial receptacles as new variations of the coffin were being offered.

Section 3

Question Answer
burial clubcreated in 1800's London by the 'poor' people as a means to afford funerals; costs were shared by others via weekly collections; were the forerunners of industrial insurance.
burial in woolen act of 1666required that woolen cloth be substituted for linen in the shroud and lining of the coffin; was an attempt to shift the use of imported linen to the expanding paper industry of England and provide customers for the wool industry. Heavy fines were assessed for violation; not repealed until 1814.
burial vaultouter enclosure for caskets placed in the grave; originally intended to prevent grave robbery
canopic jarsused by the Egyptians; four jars, usually made of alabaster, limestone, clay or basalt, whose tops were surmounted by the images of the four children of Horus, each held a specific portion of the viscera of the deceased.
casketfrom the French term 'casse' meaning Jewel box' or container for something valuable; came into dominant use in patent literature for burial receptacles in 1890's in America; a rigid container which is designed for the encasement of human remains and which is usually constructed of wood, metal, fiberglass, plastic, or like material, and ornamented and lined with fabric.

Section 4

Question Answer
casket manufacturers associationorganization of the casket manufacturers intended to facilitate sharing of information (now known as the Casket and Funeral Supply Association)
catacombsoriginated in ancient Rome as excavated cemeteries cut out of soft rock for the tombs of wealthy Christians; later became a place for religious rites to avoid persecution.
catafalqueraised platform (with or without a canopy) used for a body to lie in state.
Chadwick's Report1840's reported on unsanitary conditions in London created by intramural burials, the high cost of funerals and the 1st use of the death certificate
Edwin ChadwickEnglish investigator of mass corruption in regard to English burial practices who recommended that cemeteries be municipalized and that religious rites be simplified and standardized in 1842

Section 5

Question Answer
circle of necessityin Egyptian culture, the journey to the Sun and back which required 3,000 years to complete
Joseph Henry ClarkeFounded Clarke School of Embalming at Cincinnati (now Cincinnati College) in 1882. Authors and holder of several patents.
coffinfrom the greek work 'kofinos'; utilitarian container designed to hold human remains, often anthorpoidal in shape
conference of funeral service examining boardsorganization of licensing agencies in North America; responsible for the national licensing exam known as the National Board Exam; established in St. Louis in 1904.
cooling boardportable table on which the body was placed while the corpse cooler was in use; later became the embalming table when embalming was done in the home of the deceased

Section 6

Question Answer
corpse coolertype of ice chest placed over the torso the body in order to slow down the process of decomposition prior to the funeral. It was typically a responsibility of the undertaker to provide ice and change the ice when it melted.
cortege funeral procession
cremationmethod of disposing of the dead body via fire; first attributed to the ancient Greeks.
cremation association of North AmericaFounded in 1913, CANA is an international organization of cemeterians, cremationists, funeral directors, industry suppliers and consultants. CANA was originally formed to promote cremation as a modem, safe and hygienic way of dealing with a dead human body
crierEnglish custom of Middle Ages which lasted until 19th Century; person who walked the street calling out the name of the deceased and asking people to pray for the soul of the departed
designatormaster of ceremonies and director of the ancient Roman funeral procession

Section 7

Question Answer
direct dispositiondisposition of human remains without any rites or ceremonies
drummerstraveling salesmen who went from town to town selling their products. Early embalmers often obtained their products and training in this manner
effigya life — sized, waxen recreation (dummy) of the deceased; often used at state funerals because the body of the deceased should be present for the funeral, but could not be preserved for that length of time
elysian fields in greek mythology, the greek version of heaven
extramural burialsburial outside the walls of the city; concept introduced during the ancient Roman times.

Section 8

Question Answer
Fisk Metallic CoffinPatented in 1848 as form-fitting, airtight metallic coffin designed to improve ability to preserve the body; also had a glass plate to allow for viewing of the face.
funeralisLatin for torchlight procession; word 'funeral' is derived from this
funeral feastin Middle Ages the wake also served as a feast to welcome the principal heir to his new estate; for the ancient Greeks, funeral feasts ended the fast of the bereaved
funeral trolley cara specially designed train car run on a city's trolley line to transport casket & mourners to cemeteries on the outskirts of the city
funeral undertaker provided services of organizing and facilitating funeral details as an occupation; aka undertaker, different from furnishing undertaker

Section 9

Question Answer
furnirshing undertakerprovided supplies and merchandise (i.e. door badges, carriages, etc.) to funeral undertakers who were dealing directly with the public. Furnishing undertakers filled the role of middle man.
Jean N GannaalFrench chemist who developed early embalming methods including injection through the carotid arteries. Author of History of Embalming
J. Anthony Gaussardiapatented a process of embalming involving the injection of an arsenic-alcohol mixture
gravity injectorapparatus used to inject arterial fluid during the vascular (arterial) phase of the embalming process; relies on gravity to create the pressure required to deliver the fluid (.43 pounds of pressure per one foot elevation)
hand pumpmethod to apply a continuous flow of embalming solution via manual manipulation of a handheld mechanism.

Section 10

Question Answer
Richard Harlantranslated Gannal's History of Embalming; responsible for bringing the European embalming techniques to the United States.
Dr. William Harveydiscovered the circulation of blood
hearsetoday, a vehicle specially designed to transport casketed remains; derived from French word, herse; originally a stationary framework of wood to hold candles and decorations placed on the coffin; forerunner was a bier; hearse and bier were used interchangeably until mid 19th c.; aka funeral coach
Dr. Thomas Holmes"Father of Modem Embalming in the United States"
John HunterScottish anatomist credited with the discovery of "Hunters Canal."

Section 11

Question Answer
August Hoffmancredited with the discovery of the chemical formaldehyde
immediate burialdisposition via earth burial without any form of funeral rite at the time of disposition
International Conference of Funeral Service Examining BoardsThe agency responsible for production, administration, and integrity of the National Board Examination. Also referred to as "The Conference."
Inviter to funeralsa specialty connected with funerals in colonial America; called personally upon those expected to attend funerals; often a municipal appointment.
Jewish Funeral Directors of America (JFDA)chartered in 1928 to secure harmony in the profession among Jewish funeral directors and elevate the practice of the profession.