Social Foundations of Funeral Service Part II

airbud123's version from 2015-09-14 23:51

Section 1

Question Answer
layers of the deadbecame an occupational specialty in many larger US cities by the end of the 18th century; predecessor to the undertaker.
leagues of prayerformed in Middle Ages by lay persons to bury the dead and to pray for the souls of the faithful departed
Anton von Leeuwenhoekinventor of the microscope- "Father of Microbiology"
Libitinathe ancient Roman goddess of corpses and funerals
Libitanariushead undertaker in ancient Rome; the secular role model for today's funeral director; conducted his business at the temple of Libitina where death were also registered

Section 2

Question Answer
life signalsdue to the fear of pre-mature burial, many early American coffins were designed and patented with a method to alert the living if someone was buried alive
Marcello Malpighi"Father of Histology," the study of tissues
mound burialancient viking custom; after deceased was placed in his boat with items necessary for the spirit to maintain the position held on earth, all was cremated and the pyre then covered with earth
mystery cultsReligious/philosophical belief of the ancient Greeks and Oriental East emphasizing spiritual aspects of the afterlife and the hope of joining the cult god in a wonderful existence in eternity. 
National Association of Colleges of Mortuary ScienceEstablished in 1942 as an organization for privately sponsored schools with the goal of advancement of mortuary education

Section 3

Question Answer
National Foundation of Funeral Serviceestablished in 1945 as a non-profit educational trust to advance the education of the profession; currently merged with the NFDA as Funeral Service Foundation
National Funeral Directors Association (NFDA)a professional association of funeral directors and embalmers organized in 1882. It is the oldest and largest national funeral service organization in the world. NFDA currently provides is advocacy, education, information, products, programs and services to help members enhance the quality of services to families. (this statement taken from the NFDA constitution) 
National Selected Morticians (NSM)a limited membership funeral service organization formed in 1917 on the basis of one member firm per city; now known as Select Independent Funeral Homes (SIFH
natrona salt obtained from the dry lakes of the desert used by the Egyptians in the mummification process. It was once thought that the body was covered in natron for 70 days. Modem translations of the Book of the Dead state that the body was covered for only 20 days
Necropolisin Egyptian history, the walled suburb of a major city where embalming was performed. Also known as "The City of the Dead."

Section 4

Question Answer
Obsequieshistoric term for funeral ceremonies
ogee designAn innovation introduced to square sided caskets in order to reduce the excess space and weight, particularly of metal caskets; characterized by an "S" shaped curvature
Order of the Golden Rule (OGR)association established in 1928; committed to quality services and high standards; membership limited to one independently OWNED FUNERAL HOME PER community; now known as IOGR (International Order of Golden Rule)
OsrisEgyptian god of the underworld and judge of the dead
Paganone who has little or no religion and who delights in sensual pleasures and material goods; heathen; an irreligious or hedonistic person; in ancient Rome, a follower of a polytheistic religion

Section 5

Question Answer
Pollinctoresname of the ancient Roman embalmers. They were either slaves or employees of Libitinarius.
Praecoaka crier, a special funeral functionary in ancient Rome who summoned participants to a public funeral. 
Professional Mournersdue to fear that the dead might be jealous, the ancient Romans and Greeks hired persons (often women) to shriek, tear their hair and rend garments, etc. in order to insure adequate display of emotion
Purgatorial DoctrineCatholic belief that those whose souls are not perfectly cleansed undergo a process of cleansing before they can enter heaven
Dr. Auguste Renouardauthor of The Undertaker's Manual, the first book published specifically as an embalming textbook in the United States

Section 6

Question Answer
restorative artterm applied to systematic treatment of cases requiring repair of injuries due to disease or trauma. Joel Crandall, a New York City embalmer, is credited with developing such a treatment plan in 1912.
Frederick Ruyschconsidered the "Father of Embamling" the first to refine the technique of arterial injection of preservative into the vascular system
sarcophagusearly Egyptians cut massive coffins from a single mass of stone to protect from grave robbers. Same term is applied today to massive copper & bronze caskets. Derivation of term is from Greek, sarco for flesh and phagus for eaters because when opened, bodies inside were bound to be in a state of decay
sextonchurch caretaker who had responsibility for church property, ringing of bells and digging of graves in the churchyard cemetery. During the Middle Ages most funeral practices were under the direction of church officials
soul shotmortuary fee paid to insure entrance of the decedent's soul into heaven

Section 7

Question Answer
style 'e' state coffincloth covered coffin designed for ex-President US Grant by Stein Coffin Co. in 1885 helped elevate acceptance of cloth covered caskets
trade embalmeror embalmer to the trade; term originated when some of the original graduates of early embalming courses gave up regular employment with a single firm to provide embalming service to firms which had no trained embalmer
trocarlong hollow tube patented in 1868 by Samuel Rogers of Philadelphia; used by embalmers to inject fluids into cavities and remove excess liquids
undertakeroriginal term applied to those whose occupation included responsibility to organize and facilitate funeral activities; used interchangeably (by some) for the term funeral director
undertakers buggyname given to the vehicle used by undertakers to transport the necessary mortuary paraphernalia to the homes where funerals were typically held. These vehicles sometimes had an appearance similar to a hearse, but were much less ornate

Section 8

Question Answer
Undertakers Mutual Protective Associationfirst formal organization of undertakers; kept a black book of objectionable and delinquent customers to be shared among members only; originated in Philadelphia, January 1864
University Mortuary Science Education Associationorganization of college and university based funeral service programs established in 1961
Wakeoriginated as an ancient Hebrew practice, family and friends sit with the deceased as a precaution against premature burial; continued as an act of piety in Middle Ages (aka vigil for the dead)

Section 9

Question Answer
moresmust-beharior; the basic and important patterns of ideas and acts of a people as related to treatment of the dead which call for a strong reaction from the society if violated
taboosmust-behavior that dictates the individual must abstain from certain acts
matriarchalthe mother rules the family; a woman holding a position analogous to that of a patriarch
ethnocentrismthe emotional attitude that one's own race, nation, group, or culture is superior to all others. 
folkwaysbehaviors that are constructed as somewhat less compulsive than mores of the same society, and do not call for a strong reaction from the society if violated 
cohabitantstwo unrelated adults of the opposite sex sharing the same living quarters 